Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access


Effect of induced resistance in bean plants on Tetranychus urticae life table parameters

Atefeh Dahmardeh, Malihe Latifi, Rohollah Saberi Riseh


In this study the effects of soil application of potassium phosphite, amino acid complex, and biolog siderophoric on the life table parameters of Tetranychus urticae have been investigated on bean plants, under laboratory conditions. The results revealed significant differences in the total developmental times, oviposition periods, and fecundity of T. urticae among the treatments. The shortest total developmental time and longevity was observed in biolog siderophoric treatment. The intrinsic rate of increase, the net reproductive rate, the finite rate of increase and the mean generation times of T. urticae were remarkably different among the treatments and lower than in the control. The lowest values of these parameters were observed in the biolog siderophoric treatment, which suggests that this inducer could be employed toward a sustainable management of T. urticae.


Inducers; plant resistance; life table; demographic parameters; Tetranychus urticae


Agrawal, A.A. (2000) Specificity of induced resistance in wild radish: cause and consequesnces for two specialist and two generalist caterpillars. Oikos, 89, 493–500.

Agrawal, A.A. & Karban, R. (2000) Specificity of constitutive and induced resistance: pigment glands influence mites and caterpillars on cotton plants. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 96, 39–49.

Ahmadi, M., Fathipour, Y. & Kamali, K. (2007) Population growth parameters of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on different bean varieties. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 26(2), 1–10.

Alba, J.M., Schimmel, B.C.J., Glas, J.J., Ataide, L.M.S., Pappas, M.l., Villarroel, C.A., Schuurink, R.C., Sabelis, M.W. & Kant, MR. (2015) Spider mites suppress tomato defenses downstream of jasmonate and salicylate independently of hormonal crosstalk. New Phytologist, 205, 828–840.

Alizade, M., Hosseini, M., Awal, M.M., Goldani, M. and Hosseini, A. (2016) Effects of nitrogen fertilization on population growth of two-spotted spider mite. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 21(7), 947–956.

Araujo, L., Silva Bispo, W.M., Rios, V.S., Fernandes, S.A. & Rodrigues, F.A. (2015) Induction of the phenylpropanoid pathway by acibenzolar-S_methyl and potassium phosphate increases mango resistance to Ceratocystis finbriata infection. Plant Disease, 99(4), 447–459.

Ataide, L.M.S., Pappas, M.L., Schimmel, B.C.J., Lopez-Orenes, A., Alba, J.M., Duarte, M.V.A., Pallini, A., Schuurink, R. & Kant, MR. (2016) Induced plant-defenses suppress herbivore reproduction but also constrain predation of their offspring. Plant Science, 252, 300–310.

Bi, J.L., Murphy, J.B. & Felton, G.W. (1997) Antinutritive and oxidative components as mechanisms of induced resistance in cotton to Helicoverpa zea. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 23, 97–117.

Brody, A.K. & Karban, R. (1989) Demographic analysis of induced resistance against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidea) in cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology, 82(2), 462–465.

Bruce, T.J. (2010) Tackling the threat to food security caused by crop pests in the new millennium. Food Security, 2(2), 133–141.

Bruce, T.J., Martin, J.L., Picket, J.A., Pye, B.J., Smart, L.E. & Wadhams, L.J. (2003) Cis-jasmone treatment induces resistance in wheat plants against the grain aphid, sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Pest Management Science, 59, 1031–1036.

Bruinsma, M., van Loon, J.J. & Dicke, M. (2010) Increasing insight into induced plant defense mechanisms using elicitors and inhibitors. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 5(3), 271–274.

Buyer, J.S., Krantzke, M. & Sikora L.J. (1993) A method for detection of Pseudobactin, the siderophore produced by a plantgrowth-promoting Pseudomonas strain, in the barely rhizosphere. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 59, 677–681.

Chi, H. (2016) TWOSEX_MSChart: a computer program for the age-stage, two-sex life table analysis. URL http:// (accessed February 2016)

Choh, Y., Ozawa, R. & Takabayashi, J. (2004) Effects of exogenous jasmonic acid and benzo (1,2,3) thiadiazole-7carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), a functional analogue of salicylic acid, on the egg production of herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 39(2), 311–314.

Cohen, Y. (2000) Methods for protecting plants from fungal infection. United States Patent 6,075,051.

Cohen, Y. (2001) The BABA story of induced resistance. Phytoparasitica, 29, 375–378.

Cohen, Y. (2002) 5-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance against plant pathoges. Plant disease Journal, 85, 448–457.

Cohen, Y. & Gisi, U. (1994) Systemic translocation of 14C-DL-3aminobutyric acid in tomato plants in relation to induced resistance against Phytophthora infestans. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 45, 441–456.

Cooper, W.R. & Goggin, F.L. (2005) Effects of jasmonate-induced defenses in tomato on the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 115, 107–115.

Dannon, E.A. & Wydra, K. (2004) Intercation between silicon amendment, bacterial wilt development and phenotype of Ralstonia solanacearum in tomato genotypes. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 64, 233–243.

Dermauw, W., Wybouw, N., Rombauts, S., Menten, B., Vontas, J., Grbic, M., Clark, R.M., Feyereisen, R. & Van Leeuwen, T. (2013) A link between host plant adaptation and pesticide resistance in the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(2), E113–E122.

Dias, P.A.S., Sampaio, M.V., Rodrigues, M.P., Korndorfer, A.P., Oliveira, R.S., Ferreira, S.E. & Korndorfer, G.H. (2014) Induction of resistance by silicon in wheat plants to alate and apterous morphs of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology, 43(4), 949–956.

Duan, C., Yu, J., Bai, J., Zhu, Z. & Wang, X. (2014) Induced defense responses in rice plants against small brown planthopper infestation. The Crop Journal, 2(1), 55–62.

Eshraghi, L., Anderson, J., Aryamanesh, N., Shearer, B., McComb, J., Hardy, G.E.S.tJ. & O’Brien, P.A. (2011) Phosphite primed defence responses and enhanced expression of defence genes in Arabidopsis thaliana infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Plant Pathology, 60, 1086–1095.

Farouk, S. & Osman, M.A. (2011) The effect of plant defense elicitors on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growth and yield in absence or presence of spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) infestation. Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry, 7(3), 5–22.

Farouk, S. & Osman, M.A. (2012) Alleviation of oxidative stress induced by spider mite invasion through application of elicitors in bean plants. Egyptian Journal of Biology, 14(1), 1–13.

Fisher, R.A. (1930) The genetical theory of natural selection. Oxford, Calrendon Press, 308 pp.

Glas, J.J., Alba, J.M., Simoni, S., Villarroel, C.A., Stoops, M., Schimmel, B.C., Schuurink, R.C., Sabelis, M.W. & Kant, M.R. (2014) Defense suppression benefits herbivores that have a monopoly on their feeding site but can backfire within natural communities. BMC Biology, 12, 1–14.

Gomez-Vasquez, R., Day, R., Buschmann, H., Randles, S., Beeching, J.R. & Cooper, R.M. (2004) Phenylpropanoids, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidases in elicitor-challenged cassava (Maninhot esculenta) suspension cells and leaves. Annals of Botany, 94(1), 87–97.

Gomes, F.B., Moraes, J.C.D., Santos, C.D. & Goussain, M.M. (2005) Resistance induction in wheat plants by silicon and aphids. Science Agriculture, 62, 547–551.

Goussain, M.M., Prado, E. & Moraes, J.C. (2005) Effect of silicon applied to wheat plants on the biology and probing behaviour of greenbug Schizaphis graminum (Rond.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Crop Protection, 34, 807–813.

Hamm, J., Stout, M. & Riggio, R. (2010) Herbivore-and elicitor-induced resistance in rice to the rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus kuschel) in the laboratory and field. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 36, 192–199.

Han, Y., Lei, W., Wen, L. & Hou, M. (2015) Silicon-mediated resistance in a susceptible rice variety to the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Plos One, 10(4), 1–13.

Hong, J.K., Hwang, B.K. & Kim, C.H. (1999) Induction of local and systemic resistance to Colletotrichum coccodes in pepper plants by DL-5-amino-n-butyric acid. Journal of Phytopathology, 147, 193–198.

Huffaker, A., Pearce, G., Veyrat, N., Erb, M., Turlings, T.C., Sartor, R., Shen, Z., Briggs, S.P., Vaughan, M.M., Alborn, H.T. & Teal, P.E. (2013) Plant elicitor peptides are conserved signals regulating direct and indirect antiherbivore defense. Plant Biology, 110(14), 5707–5712.

Kant, M.R., Sabelis, M.W., Haring, M.A. & Schuurink, R.C. (2008) Intraspecific variation in a generalist herbivore accounts foe differential induction and impact of host plant defences. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 275, 443–452.

Kessler, A. & Baldwin, I.T. (2001) Defensive function of herbivore induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science, 291, 2141–2144.

Kessler, A. & Baldwin, I.T. (2002) Plant responses to insect herbivory: the emerging molecular analysis. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 53 299–328.

Khanjani, M. (2005) Field crop pest (insect and mites) in Iran. Hamadan, Bu-Ali Sina University Press, 719 pp.

Khanjani, M. & Haddad Irani-Nejad, K. (2008) Injurious mites of agricultural crops in Iran. 2nd ed. Hamadan, Bu-Ali Sina University Press, 536 pp.

Li, C.Y., Williams, M.M., Loh, Y.T., Lee, G.I. & Howe, G.A. (2002) Resistance of cultivated tomato to cell content-feeding herbivores is regulated by the octadecanoid-signaling pathway. Plant Physiology, 130, 494–503.

Mandal, S., Mallick, N. & Mitra, A. (2009) Salicylic acid-induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 47, 642–649.

Menzel, T.R., Weldegergis, T., David, A., Boland, W., Gols, R., van Loon, J.J.A. & Dicke, M. (2014) Synergism in the effect of prior jasmonic acid application on herbivore-induced volatile emission by lima bean plants: transcription of a monoterpene synthase gene and volatile emission. Journal of Experimental Botany, 66(17), 4821–4831.

Modarres, A.M. (1997) List of agicultural pests and their natural enemies in Iran. Iran, Ferdowsi University press, 429 pp.

Mohamadi, P., Razmjou, J., Naseri, B. & Hassanpour, M. (2017) Population growth parameters of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on tomato plant using organic substrate and biofertilizers. Journal of Insect Science, 17(2), 36.

Mohamed, H.I., Haleem, A.B.D.E.L., Mohammed, M.A. & Mogazy, A.M. (2016) Effects of plant defense elicitors on soybean (Glycine max L.) growth, photosynthetic pigments, osmolyts and lipid components in response to cotton worm (Spodoptera littoralis) infestation. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 45(3), 597–604.

Nascimento, K.J.T., Araujo, L., Resende, R.S., Schurt, D.A., Silva, W.Ld., Rodrigues, F.dÁ. (2016) Silicon, acibenzolar-S-methyl and potassium phosphite in the control of brown spot in rice. Bragantia, 75, 212–221.

Omer, A.D., Thaler, J., Granett, J. & Karban, R. (2000) Jasmonic acid induced resistance in grapevines to a root and leaf feeder. Journal of Economic Entomology, 93, 840–845.

Oostendorp, M., Kunz, W., Dietrich, B. & Staub, T. (2001) Induced disease resistance in plants by chemicals. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 107(1), 19–28.

Pascual, S., Nombela, G., Aviles, M. & Muniz, M. (2003) Induced resistance in tomato to whitefly Bemisia tabaci by Bion. Integrated Control in Protected Crops, Mediterranean Climate, 26(10), 61–64.

Peng, J., Deng, X., Huang, J., Jia, S., Miao, X. & Huang, Y. (2004) Role of salicylic acid in tomato defense against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C., 59, 856–862.

Pieterse, C.M.J., Leo-Reyes, A., Van der Ent, S. & Van wees, S.C.M. (2009) Networking by small-molecule hormones in plant immunity. Nature Chemical Biology, 5, 308–316.

Pinto, K.M.S., do Nascimento, L.C., Gomes, E.C.D., da Silva, H.F. & Miranda, J.D. (2012) Efficiency of resistance elicitors in the management of grapevine downy Plasmopara viticola: epidemiological, biochemical and economic aspects. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 134, 745–754.

Poelman, E.H., Broekgaarden, C., Van Loon, J.J.A. & Dicke, M. (2008) Early season herbivore differentially affects plant defence responses to subsequently colonizing herbivores and their abundance in the field. Molecular Ecology, 17, 3352–3365.

Ranger, C.M., Singh, A.P., Frantz, J.M., Canas, L., Locke, J.C., Reding, M.E. & Vorsa, N. (2009) Influence of silicon on resistance of Zinnia elegans to Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology, 38(1), 129–136.

Romero, A.M., Kousik, C.S. & Ritchie, D.F. (2001) Resistance to bacterial spot in bell pepper induced by acibenzolar-S-methyl. Plant Disease, 85, 189–194.

Ryals, J.A., Neuenschwander, U.H., Willits, M.G., Molina, A., Steiner, H.Y. & Hunt, M.D. (1996) Systemic acquired resistance. Plant Cell, 8, 1809–1819.

Ryan, C.A. & Moura, D.S. (2002) Systemic wound signaling in plants: a new perception. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 6519–6520.

Scott, I.M., Thaler, S.J. & Scott, G.F. (2010) Response of a generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni to jasmonate-mediated induced defense in tomato. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 36, 490–499.

Sharma, K., Bruns, C., Butz, A.F., Finckh, M.R. (2012) Effects of fertilizers and plant strengtheners on the susceptibility of tomatoes to single and mixed isolates of Phytophthora infestans. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 133, 739–751.

Siegrist, J., Orober, M. & Buchenauer, H. (2000) 5-Aminobutyric acid-mediated enhancement of resistance in tobacco to tobacco mosaic virus depends on accumulation of salicylic acid. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 56, 95–106.

Southwood, R. & Henderson, P.A. (2000) Ecological methods. Oxford, USA, Blackwell Science, 575 pp.

Stratmann, J.W. (2003) Long distance run in the wound response-jasmonic acid is pulling ahead. Trends in Plant Science, 8, 247–250.

Sun, J.Q., Jiang, H.L. & Li, C.Y. (2011) Systemin/jasmonate-mediated systemic defense signaling in tomato. Molecular Plant, 4(4), 607–615.

Taami, J., Dolatti, L. & Shekari, F. (2015) The effect of methyl jasmonate in antibiosis resistance of wheat to the Russian wheat aphid. Plant Pests Research, 5(2), 13–23.

Tan, C.W., Chiang S.Y., Ravuiwasa, K.T., Yadav, J. & Hwang S.Y. (2012) Jasmonate-induced defenses in tomato against Helicoverpa armigera depend in part on nutrient availability, but artificial induction via methyl jasmonate does not. Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 10, 1–4.

Tavallali, V., Karimi, S., Mohammadi, S. & Hojati, S. (2008) Effects of 5-aminobutyric acid on the induction of resistance to Penicillium italicum. World Applied Sciences Journal, 5(3), 345–351.

Thaler, J.S. (1999) Induced resistance in agricultural crops: effects of jasmonic acid on herbivory and yield in tomato plants. Environmental Entomology, 28(1), 30–37.

Thaler, J.S., Olsen, E.L. & Kaplan, I. (2015) Jasmonate-induced plant defenses and prey availability impact the preference and performance of an omnivorous stink bug, Podisus maculiventris. Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 9(2), 141–148.

Tiwari, S., Meyer, W.L. & Stelinski, L.L. (2013) Induced resistance against Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphornia citri, by B-aminobutyric acid in citrus. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 103, 592–600.

Tuan, S.J., Lin, Y.H., Yang, C.M., Atlihan, R., Saska, P. & Chi, H. (2016) Survival and reproductive strategies in two-spotted spider mites: demographic analysis of arrhenotokous parthenogenesis of Tetranychus urticae. Journal of Economic Entomology, 109(2), 502–509.

Underwood, N. (1999) The influence of induced plant resistance on herbivore population dynamics. In: Agrawal, A.A., Tuzun, S. & Bent, E. (eds.) Induced plant defense against pathogens and herbivores: biochemistry, ecology and agriculture. St. Paul, MN, American Phytopathological Society Press, pp. 211–230.

Vallad, G.E. & Goodman, R.M. (2004) Systemic acquired resistance and induced systemic resistance in conventional agriculture. Crop Science, 44, 1920–1934.

Venter, E. & Mansoor, C. (2012) Potassium phosphate induces tolerance against the russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Homoptera: Aphididae) in wheat. Crop Protection, 61, 43–50.

Vieira, D.L., de Oliveira Barbosa, V., de Souza, W.C.O., da Silva, J.G., Malaquias, J.B. & de Luna Batista, J. (2016) Potassium silicate-induced resistance against blackfly in seedlings of Citrus reticulate. Fruits, 71(1), 49–55.

Vilela, M., Moraes, J.C., Alves, E., Santos-Civipanes, T.M. & Santos, F.A. (2014) Induced resistance to Diatrae saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) via silicon application in sugarcane. Colombiana de Entomologia, 40, 44–48.

Walters, D., Walsh, D., Newton, A. & Lyon, G. (2005) Induced resistance for plant disease control: maximizing the efficacy of resistance elicitors. Phytopathology, 95(12), 1368–1373.

War, A.R., Paulraj, M.G., War, M.Y. & Ignacimuthu, S. (2011) Herbivore- and elicitor-induced resistance in groundnut to asian armyworm, spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Plant Signaling and Behavior, 6(11), 1769–1777.

War, A.R., Paulraj, M.G., War, M.Y. & Ignacimuthu, S. (2011) Jasmonic acid-mediated-induced resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 30(4), 512–523.

Warabieda, W. & Oszak, R. (2010) Effect of exogenous methyl jasmonate on numerical growth of the population of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch.) on strawberry plants and young apple trees. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 50(4), 541–544.

Wolf, J.M.van der, Michta, A., Zouwen, P.S.van der, Boer,, Davelaar, E. & Stevens, L.H. (2012) Seed and leaf treatments with natural compounds to induce resistance against Peronospora parasitica in Brassica oleracea. Crop Protection, 35, 78–84.

Worrall, D., Holroyd, G.F., Moore, J.P., Glowacz, M., Croft, P., Taylor, J., Paul, N.D. & Roberts, M.R. (2012) Treating seeds with activators of plant defence generates long losting priming of resistance to pests and pathogens. New Phytologist, 193, 770–778.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

An international journal of the Systematic and Applied Acarology Society

ISSN 1362-1971