Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access


Effect of temperature and diet on the morphology of Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

Paula Caroline Lopes, Rubens Hideo Kanno, Nazer Famah Sourassou, Gilberto Jose Moraes


Mite identification is usually done by the examination of morphological characteristics, the variation of which is not always sufficiently known to allow reliable distinction between closely related species. Morphological variations can be associated with geographical distribution and/ or with host ranges. The objective of this study is to evaluate the morphological variations of a population of a predatory mite identified as Euseius concordis (Chant) (Phytoseiidae) collected in Piracicaba, southeastern Brazil, when reared at different combinations of temperatures (20°C or 28°C) and diets (pollen of Typha domingensis Pers or the eriophyid mite Aceria litchii (Keifer)). High variations were observed even among mites of each treatment. Temperature (especially) and diet caused significant changes in the dimensions of some structures. Extreme cases corresponded to the maximal lengths of the dorsal idiosomal setae z2 and z4, which were about twice their minimal lengths. It is argued that for practical taxonomic purposes, it is more relevant to determine the range of the variation of each structure than its mean or other statistical parameters describing populational variations. 


Euseius, intraspecific variation, morphological variation, species identification, taxonomy


Abou-Setta, M.M., Childers, C.C., Denmark, H.A. & Browning, H.W. (1991) Comparative morphology and reproductive compatibility between populations of Euseius mesembrinus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Florida and Texas. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 10, 213–220.

Athias-Henriot, C. (1971) Nouvelles notes sur les Amblyseiini (Gamasides Podospermiques, Phytoseiidae). 1. La dépilation des genuaux et tibias des pattes. Acarologia, 13, 4–15.

Chant, D.A. (1955) Notes on mites of the genus Typhlodromus Scheuten, 1857 (Acarina: Laelaptidae), with descriptions of the males of some species and the female of a new species. The Canadian Entomologist, 87, 496–503.

Chant, D.A. & Yoshida-Shaul, E. (1991) Adult ventral setal patterns in the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Gamasina). International Journal of Acarology, 17, 187–199.

Demite, P.R., Moraes, G.J., McMurtry, J.A., Denmark, H.A. & Castilho, R.C. (2014) Phytoseiidae Database [database]. Retrieved from <>. Access 10/05/2015.

Gotthard, K. & Nylin, S. (1995) Adaptive plasticity and plasticity as an adaptation: a selective review of plasticity in animal morphology and life history. Oikos, 74, 3–17.

Guanilo, A.D., Moraes, G.J. & Knapp, M. (2008a) Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) of the subfamily Amblyseiinae Muma from Peru, with description of four new species. Zootaxa, 1880, 1–47.

Guanilo, A.D., Moraes, G.J., Toledo, S. & Knapp, M. (2008b) Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Argentina, with description of a new species. Zootaxa, 1884, 1–35.

Hoy, M.A. (2011) Agricultural Acarology: Introduction to Integrated Mite Management. Boca Raton, USA, CRC Press, 401 pp.

Lesna, I. & Sabelis, M.W. (2002) Genetic polymorphism in prey preference at a small spatial scale: a case study of soil predatory mites (Hypoaspis aculeifer) and two species of astigmatic mites as prey. In: Bernini, F., Nannelli, R., Nuzzaci, G. & de Lillo. E. (eds.). Acarid Phylogeny and Evolution: adaptation in mites and ticks. Proceedings of the IV Symposium of the European Association of Acarologists, pp 49–64.

Lopes, P.C., McMurtry, J.A. & Moraes, G.J. (2015) Definition of the concordis species group of the genus Euseius (Acari: Phytoseiidae), with a morphological reassessment of the species included. Zootaxa, 4048 (2), 174–90.

Massaro, M., Martin, J.P.I. & Moraes, G.J. (2016) Factitious food for mass production of predaceous phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) commonly found in Brazil. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 70, 411–420.

Mayr, E. & Ashlock, P.D. (1991) Principles of systematic zoology. 2nd. Ed. McGraw-Hill. New York, USA, 428 pp.

McMurtry, J.A. (1980) Biosystematics of three taxa in the Amblyseius finlandicus group from South Africa, with comparative life history studies (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). International Journal of Acarology, 6, 147–156.

McMurtry, J.A., Badii, M.H. & Congdon, B.D. (1985) Studies on a Euseius species complex on avocado in Mexico and Central America, with a description of a new species (Acari: Phytoseiidae). International Journal of Acarology, 26, 107–116.

McMurtry, J.A., Mahr, D.L. & Johnson, H.G. (1976) Geographic races in the predaceous mite, Amblyseius potentillae (Acari: Phytoseiidae). International Journal of Acarology, 2, 23–28.

McMurtry, J.A., Moraes, G.J. & Famah Sourassou, N. (2013) Revision of the lifestyles of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and implications for biological control strategies. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 18, 297–320. /10.11158/saa.18.4.1

McMurtry, J.A., Famah Sourassou, N. & Demite, P.R. (2015) The Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) as biological control agents. In: Carrilo, D., Moraes, G.J. & Peña, J.E. (eds.). Prospects for Biological Control of plant feeding mites and other harmful organisms, pp. 133–149.

Moraes, G.J. & McMurtry, J.A. (1983) Phytoseiid mites (Acarina) of northeastern Brazil with descriptions of four new species. International Journal of Acarology, 9, 131–148.

Moraes, G.J., Denmark, H.A. & Guerrero, J.M. (1982) Phytoseiid mites of Colombia (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). International Journal of Acarology, 8, 15–22.

Noronha, A.C.S. & Moraes, G.J. (2002) Variações morfológicas intra e interpopulacionais de Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma e Euseius concordis (Chant) (Acari, Phytoseiidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 19, 1111–1122.

Okassa, M., Tixier, M.-S., Cheval, B. & Kreiter, S. (2009) Molecular and morphological evidence for new species status within the genus Euseius (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 87, 689–698.

Picoli, P.R.F., Vieira, M.R., Silva, E.A. & Mota, M.S.O. (2010) Ácaros predadores associados ao ácaro-da-erinose da lichia. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 45(11), 1246–1252.

Rowell, H.J., Chant, D.A. & Hansell, R.I.C. (1978) The determination of setal homologies and setal patterns on the dorsal shield in the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata). The Canadian Entomologist, 110, 859–876.

SAS Institute. PROC user’s manual version 9.2 Inc. Cary, 2005.

Sourassou, N.F., Hanna, R., Zannou, I., Breeuwer, J.A.J., Moraes, G.J. & Sabelis, M.W. (2012) Morphological, molecular and cross-breeding analysis of geographic populations of coconut-mite associated predatory mites identified as Neoseiulus baraki: evidence for cryptic species? Experimental and Applied Acarology, 57, 15–26.

Swirski, E. & Amitai, S. (1965) Further phytoseiid mites (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) of Israel, with a description of one new species. The Israel Journal of Agricultural Research, 15, 123–138.

Tixier, M.-S. (2012) Statistical approaches to assess intraspecific variations of morphological continuous characters: the case study of the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata). Cladistics, 28, 489–502.

Tixier, M.-S., Guichou, S. & Kreiter, S. (2008) Morphological variation of the species Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae): importance for diagnostic reliability and synonymies. Invertebrate Systematics, 22, 453–469.

Tixier, M.-S., Kreiter, S., Cheval, B. & Auger, P. (2003) Morphometric variation between populations of Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae): implication for the taxonomy of the genus. Invertebrate Systematics, 17(2), 349–358.

Tixier, M-S, Kreiter, S., Ragusa, S. & Cheval, B. (2006) The status of two cryptic species: Typhlodromus exhilaratus Ragusa and Typhlodromus phialatus Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae): consequences for taxonomy. Zoologica Scripta, 37, 115–122.

Toyoshima, S. & Amano, H. (2013) Intraspecific variations of idiosomal setal patterns of phytoseiid mites. Journal of the Acarological Society of Japan, 22, 25–36.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

An international journal of the Systematic and Applied Acarology Society

ISSN 1362-1971