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The taxonomic status of Melanophryniscus orejasmirandai Prigioni & Langone, 1987 "1986" (Anura: Bufonidae)



Melanophryniscus orejasmirandai is a species of toad known only from two localities in southern Uruguay. This toad isthe southernmost suggested taxon of the M. tumifrons group, whose species are characterized by a glandular frontal swell-ing on the snout. The study of the type series of M. orejasmirandai and of M. pachyrhynus, along with observations madeon many specimens of both species suggested a close relationship between them. The analysis of the variation of snout-vent length, coloration pattern, relative size of the frontal swelling, and presence/absence of the metatarsal gland showedthat characters previously used to separate both species resulted of no diagnostic value. Further comparison of the externalmorphology, osteological characters, and partial sequences of the cytochrome b gene indicated that M. orejasmirandai isa junior synonym of M. pachyrhynus. Melanophryniscus pachyrhynus is characterized by a reticulated orange ventral pat-tern which is shared only with M. peritus, from which it differs by its smaller size. The ornamentation of the nasal bonesunderlying the frontal swelling in M. pachyrhynus seems to be characteristic of the M. tumifrons group. An updated distribution map of M. pachyrhynus and some new localities are also provided.


Hemichordata, geographic distribution, Melanophryniscus orejasmirandai, Melanophryniscus pachyrhynus, osteology, taxonomy

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