Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Is the species diversity in the lyophylloid genera Calocybella and Gerhardtia (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) underestimated? Two new species from the Dominican Republic



Two new species, Calocybella dominicana and Gerhardtia citrinolobata are described in the Lyophyllaceae from the Dominican Republic based on morphological and molecular data. The generic delimitation of the genera Calocybella and Gerhardtia is also discussed. The discovery of these new species extends the geographical distribution of these genera indicating that their species diversity is still far from being fully understood.


Agaricomycetes, Lyophylloid clade, Lyophylleae, Caribbean Islands, nrLSU, nrITS, Taxonomy, Fungi

Full Text:



Angelini, C. & Losi, C. (2013) Polyporoid fungi in Dominican Republic. First Part. Ganodermataceae & Hymenochaetaceae. Bollettino della Associazione Micologica ed Ecologica Romana 89 (2): 27–39.

Angelini, C. & Losi, C. (2014) Annotaded list of Polyporaceae in Dominican Republic. Third Part. Bollettino della Associazione Micologica ed Ecologica Romana 91(1): 31–45.

Baroni, T.J. (1981) The genus Rhodocybe Maire (Agaricales). Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 67: 1–194.

Bellanger, J.M., Moreau, P.A., Bidaud, A., Chalange, R., Dudova, Z. & Richard, F. (2015) Plunging hands into the mushroom jar: a phylogenetic framework for Lyophyllaceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota). Genetica 143: 169–194.

Bigelow, H.E. (1985) North American species of Clitocybe, part II. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 81: 281–471.

Bigelow, H.E. & Smith, A.H. (1966) Additional species of Clitocybe from Michigan. Michigan Botanist 5: 218–226.

Bon, M. (1994) Deux Lyophylloideae interessantes et le genre Gerhardtia st. et nom. nov. Documents Mycologiques 24 (93): 65–68.

Bon, M. (1999) Flore Mycologique d’ Europe Vol. 5. Les Collybio-marasmioïdes et ressemblants. [Documents Mycologiques, Mémoire hors-série no. 5.] Centre régional de documentation pédagogique de l’académie d’Amiens, Amiens. 171 pp.

Carbó, J. & Pérez-de-Gregorio, M.-À. (1999) Cuatro especies de hongos interesantes citadas por primera vez en la Península Ibérica. Revista Catalana de Micologia 22: 77–90.

Castresana, J. (2000) Selection of conserved blocks from multiple alignments for their use in phylogenetic analysis. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17: 540–552.

Clémençon, H. (1968) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Gattungen Lyophyllum und Calocybe. Nova Hedwigia 16: 417–427.

Consiglio, G. & Contu, M. (2002) Il genere Lyophyllum P. Karst. emend. Kühner, in Italia. Rivista di Micologia 45: 99–181.

Contu, M. & Bon, M. (2000) Une nouvelle espèce de Rugosomyces rougissant. Documents mycologiques 29 (116): 35–36.

Contu M. & Consiglio, G. (2004) Il genere Gerhardtia (Lyophyllaceae) in Europa, con osservazioni sulle rimanenti specie conosciute. Micologia e Vegetazione Mediterranea 19: 151–162.

Contu, M. & Ortega, A. (2001) Studi sulle Lyophyllaceae della Sardegna. V. Morfologia sporale di Rugosomyces pudicus ed implicazioni sulla sua posizione sistematica. Boletín de la Sociedad Micológica de Madrid 26: 171–176.

Cooper, J.A. (2014) New species and combinations of some New Zealand agarics belonging to Clitopilus, Lyophyllum, Gerhardtia, Clitocybe, Hydnangium, Mycena, Rhodocollybia and Gerronema. Mycosphere 5: 263–288.

Crous, P.W., Wingfield, M.J., Guarro, J., Hernández-Restrepo, M., Sutton, D.A., Acharya, K., Barber, P.A., Boekhout, T., Dimitrov, R.A., Dueñas, M., Dutta, A.K., Gené, J., Gouliamova, D.E., Groenewald, M., Lombard, L., Morozova, O.V., Sarkar, J., Smith, M.TH., Stchigel, A.M., Wiederhold, N.P., Alexandrova, A.V., Antelmi, I., Armengol, J., Barnes, I., Cano-Lira, J.F., Ruiz, R.F. Castañeda, Contu, M., Courtecuisse, Pr.R., da Silveira, A.L., Decock, C.A., de Goes, A., Edathodu, J., Ercole, E., Firmino, A.C., Fourie, A., Fournier, J., Furtado, E.L., Geering, A.D.W., Gershenzon, J., Giraldo, A., Gramaje, D., Hammerbacher, A., He, X.-L., Haryadi, D., Khemmuk, W., Kovalenko, A.E., Krawczynski, R., Laich, F., Lechat, C., Lopes, U.P., Madrid, H., Malysheva, E.F., Marín-Felix, Y., Martín, M.P., Mostert, L., Nigro, F., Pereira, O.L., Picillo, B., Pinho, D.B., Popov, E.S., Peláez, C.A. Rodas, Rooney-Latham, S., Sandoval-Denis, M., Shivas, R.G., Silva, V., Stoilova-Disheva, M.M., Telleria, M.T., Ullah, C., Unsicker, S.B., van der Merwe, N.A., Vizzini, A., Wagner, H.-G., Wong, P.T.W., Wood, A.R. & Groenewald, J.Z. (2015) Fungal Planet description sheets: 320–370. Persoonia 34: 167–266.

Darriba, D., Taboada, G.L., Doallo, R. & Posada, D. (2012) “jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing”. Nature Methods 9 (8): 772.

Donk, M.A. (1962) The generic names proposed for the Agaricaceae. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 5: 1–320.

Drummond, A.J., Ashton, B., Cheung, M., Heled, J., Kearse, M., Moir, R., Stones-Havas, S., Thierer, T. & Wilson, A. (2010) Geneious v5.3. Available from (accessed 1 January 2017)

Felsenstein, J. (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39: 783–791.

Fries, E. (1838) Epicrisis Systematis Mycologici seu Synopsis Hymenomycetum. Typographia Academica, Uppsaliae, 610 pp.

Gardes M. & Bruns, T.D. (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes – application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molecular Ecology 2: 113–118.

Gerhardt, E. (1982) Über zwei neue Tricholomataceen: Collybia hebelomoides und Lyophyllum incarnatobrunneum, gefunden in Berlin. Zeitschrift für Mykologie 48: 239–243.

Gulden, G. (1993) Calocybe civilis (Fr.) Gulden comb. nov., an agaric new to Norway. Blyttia 51: 115–120.

Hofstetter, V., Clémençon, H., Vilgalys, R. & Moncalvo, J-M. (2002) Phylogenetic analyses of the Lyophylleae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) based on nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA sequences. Mycological Research 106: 104–1059.

Hofstetter, V., Redhead, S.A., Kauff, F., Moncalvo, J-M., Matheny, P.B., & Vilgalys, R. (2014) Taxonomic revision and examination of ecological transitions of the Lyophyllaceae (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) based on a multigene phylogeny. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 35: 399–425.

Jülich, W. (1981) Higher taxa of Basidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Mycologica 85: 1–485.

Kalamees, K. (2004) Palearctic Lyophyllaceae (Tricholomataceae) in northern and eastern Europe and Asia. Scripta Mycologica 18: 3–134.

Kalamees, K. (2012a) Rugosomyces Raithelh. In: Knudsen, H. & Vesterholt, J. (Eds.) Funga Nordica: agaricoid, boletoid, clavarioid, cyphelloid and gastroid genera. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen, pp. 592–594.

Kalamees, K. (2012b) Gerhardtia Bon. In: Knudsen, H. & Vesterholt, J. (Eds.) Funga Nordica: agaricoid, boletoid, clavarioid, cyphelloid and gastroid genera. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen, 582 pp.

Kalamees, K. (2012c) Calocybe Donk. In: Knudsen, H. & Vesterholt, J. (Eds.) Funga Nordica: agaricoid, boletoid, clavarioid, cyphelloid and gastroid genera. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen, pp. 581–582.

Karsten, P.A. (1881) Hymenomycetes Fennici enumerati. Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 2 (1): 1–40

Katoh, K., Misawa, K., Kuma, K. & Miyata, T. (2002) MAFFT: a novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast Fourier transform. Nucleic Acids Research 30: 3059–3066.

Latha, K.P.D, Raj, K.N.A., Thushara, C., Sharafudheen, S.A. & Manimohan P. (2016) Three new species of Calocybella from India based on morphology and molecular phylogeny. Phytotaxa 255 (2): 133–143.

Mešić, A. & Tkalčec, Z. (2009) Studies on Croatian Basidiomycota 1: Gerhardtia piperata (Agaricales). Mycotaxon 110: 413–421.

Miller, M.A., Pfeiffer, W. & Schwartz, T. (2010) Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. In: Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), 14 November 2010, New Orleans, LA. pp. 1–8.

Moncalvo, J.M., Vilgalys, R., Redhead, S.A., Johnson, J.E., James, T.Y., Aime, M.C., Hofstetter, V., Verduin, S.J.W., Larsson, E., Baroni, T.J., Thorn, R.G., Jacobsson, S., Clémençon, H. & Miller, O.K. (2002) One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23: 357–400.

Moreno, G., Altés, A., Ochoa, C. & Wright, J.E. (1995) Contribution to the study of the Tulostomataceae in Baja California, Mexico. I. Mycologia 87: 96–120.

Picillo, B. & Contu, M. (2009) Calocybe pudica (Basidiomycota) osservata nel Lazio. Micologia e Vegetazione Mediterranea 24: 23–29.

Redhead, S.A. (2012). Nomenclatural novelties. Index Fungorum 8: 1.

Redhead, S.A. (2014) Nomenclatural novelties. Index Fungorum 202: 1.

Ridgway, R. (1912) Color Standards and Color Nomenclature. R. Ridgway, Washington D.C.

Riva, A. (1987) Contributi alla conoscenza del genere Tricholoma – 2. Calocybe borealis spec. nov. Rivista di Micologia 30: 90–94.

Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., van der Mark, P., Ayres, D.L., Darling, A., Höhna, S., Larget, B., Liu, L., Suchard, M.A. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2012) MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology 61: 539–542.

Sathe, A.V., Deshpande, S., Kulkarni, S.M. & Daniel, J. (1980) Agaricales (Mushrooms) of South-west India - Part I: Agaricales (Mushrooms) of Maharashtra State: 1–114.

Singer, R. (1986) The Agaricales in modern taxonomy. 4th edn. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein. 981 pp.

Singer, R. & Digilio, A.P.L. (1952) Pródromo de la Flora Agaricina Argentina. Lilloa 25: 5–461.

Smith, A.H. & Hesler, L.R. (1943) New and interesting agarics from Tennessee and North Carolina. Lloydia 6: 248–266.

Stamatakis, A. (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: Maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22: 2688–2690.

Tamura, K, Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A. & Kumar S (2013). MEGA 6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30(12): 2725–2729.

Thiers, B. (2016) [continuously updated] Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. Available from: (accessed 18 November 2016)

Vilgalys, R. & Hester, M. (1990) Rapid genetic identification and mapping of enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA from several Cryptococcus species. Journal of Bacteriology 172: 4238–4246.

Vizzini, A., Consiglio, G., Setti, L. & Ercole, L. (2015) Calocybella, a new genus for Rugosomyces pudicus (Agaricales, Lyophyllaceae) and emendation of the genus Gerhardtia. IMA Fungus 6 (1): 1–11.

White, T.J., Bruns, T., Lee, S. & Taylor, J.W. (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis, M.A., Gelfand, D.H., Sninsky, J.J. & White, T.J. (Eds.) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press Inc., New York, pp. 315–322.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand