Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Monochaetia ilexae sp. nov. (Pestalotiopsidaceae) from Yunnan Province in China



Monochaetia is a pestalotiopsis-like genus characterized by 3–5-septate hyaline to brown conidia with single apical and basal appendages. Monochaetia species exhibit diverse conidial morphology, but many species lack molecular data and thus it is not clear if the genus is monophyletic. In this paper, combined LSU and ITS sequence data and morphological traits are used to introduce a new Monochaetia species, M. ilexae from Yunnan Province, China from dead leaves of Ilex species. Monochaetia ilexae shares similar morphology with the type, M. monochaeta and M. kansensis having fusiform conidia and has a similar range of conidia. However M. ilexae differs from M. monochaeta and M. kansensis having different conidia length, apical and basal appendage lengths. Phylogeny agrees with morphological differences allowing Monochaetia ilexae as a new species that clusters with Monochaetia species, but is separated from the main clade with high support.


coelomycetes, morphology, new species, phylogeny, Fungi, China

Full Text:



Allescher, A. (1902) Fungi Imperfecti: Gefärbt-sporige Sphaerioideen. In: Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland. Österreich und der Schweiz. 2nd edn. Kummer, Leipzig, pp. 65–128.

Chomnunti, P., Hongsanan, S., Hudson, B.A., Tian, Q., Peršoh, D., Dhami, M.K., Alias, A.S., Xu, J., Liu, X., Stadler, M. & Hyde, K.D. (2014) The sooty moulds. Fungal Diversity 66: 1–36.

Farr, D.F. & Rossman, A.Y. (2016) Fungal Databases, Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, ARS, USDA. Available from: http://nt.ars-grin. gov/fungaldatabases/ (28 September 2016)

Guba, E.F. (1961) Monograph of Monochaetia and Pestalotia. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Gonthier, P., Gennaro, M. & Nicolotti, G. (2006) Effects of water stress on the endophytic mycota of Quercus robur. Fungal Diversity 21: 69–80.

Jayasiri, S.C., Hyde, K.D., Ariyawansa, H.A., Bhat, J., Buyck, B., Cai, L., Dai, Y.C., Abd-Elsalam K.A., Ertz D., Hidayat, I., Jeewon, R., Jones, E.B.G., Bahkali, A.H., Karunarathna, S.C., Liu, J.K., Luangsa-ard, J.J., Lumbsch, H.T., Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., McKenzie, E.H.C., Moncalvo, J.M., Ghobad-Nejhad, M., Nilsson, H., Pang, K.A., Pereira, O.L., Phillips, A.J.L., Raspé, O., Rollins, A.W., Romero, A.I., Etayo, J., Selçuk, F., Stephenson, S.L., Suetrong, S., Taylor, J.E., Tsui, C.K.M., Vizzini, A., Abdel-Wahab, M.A., Wen, T.C., Boonmee, S., Dai, D.Q., Daranagama, D.A., Dissanayake, A.J., Ekanayaka, A.H., Fryar, S.C., Hongsanan, S., Jayawardena, R.S., Li, W.J., Perera, R.H., Phookamsak, R., de Silva, N.I., Thambugala, K.M., Tian, Q., Wijayawardene, N.N., Zhao, R.L., Zhao, Q., Kang, J.C. & Promputtha, I. (2015) The Faces of Fungi database: fungal names linked with morphology, phylogeny and human impacts. Fungal Diversity 74 (1): 3–18.

Jeewon, R., Liew, E.C.Y. & Hyde, K.D. (2002) Phylogenetic relationships of Pestalotiopsis and allied genera inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences and morphological characters. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25: 378–392.

Jeewon, R., Liew, E.C.Y., Simpson, J.A., Hodgkiss, I.J. & Hyde, K.D. (2003) Phylogenetic significance of morphological characters in the taxonomy of Pestalotiopsis species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 27: 372–383.

Kishino, H. & Hasegawa, M. (1989) Evaluation of the maximum likelihood estimate of the evolutionary tree topologies from DNA sequence data, and the branching order in hominoidea. Journal of Molecular Evolution 29: 170–179.

Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Hyde, K.D., Groenewald, J.Z. & Crous, P.W. (2014) Pestalotiopsis revisited. Studies in Mycology 79: 121–186.

Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Camporesi, E., Liu, Z.Y. & Hyde, K.D. (2015a) Seiridium venetum redescribed, and S. camelliae, a new species from Camellia reticulata in China. Mycological Progress 14: 85–93.

Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Hyde, K.D., Jones, E.B.G., McKenzie, E.H.C., Huang, S.K., Wahab, M.A.A.W., Daranagama, D.A., Dayarathne, M., D’souza, M.J., Goonasekara, I.D., Hongsanan, S., Jayawardena, R.S., Kirk, P.M., Konta, S., Liu, J.K., Liu, Z.Y., Norphanphoun, C., Pang, K.L., Perera, R.H., Senanayake, I.C., Shang, Q., Shenoy, B.D., Xiao, Y., Bahkali, A.H., Kang, J., Somrothipo, S., Suetrong, S., Wen, T. & Xu, J. (2015b) Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 72: 199–301.

Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Hyde, K.D., Jones, E.B.G., McKenzie, E.H.C., Bhat, J.D., Dayarathne, M.C., Huang, S.K., Norphanphoun, C., Senanayake, I.C., Perera, R.H., Shang, Q.J., Xiao, Y., D’souza, M.J., Hongsanan, S., Jayawardena, R.S., Daranagama, D.A., Konta, S., Goonasekara, I.D., Zhuang, W.Y., Jeewon, R., Phillips, A.J.L., Wahab, M.A.A., Sadi, A.M.A., Bahkali, A.H., Boonmee, S., Boonyuen, N., Cheewangkoon, R., Dissanayake, A.J., Kang, J., Li, Q.R., Liu, J.K., Liu, X.Z., Liu, Z.Y., Luangsa-ard, J.J., Pang, K.L., Phookamsak, R., Promputtha, I., Suetrong, S., Stadler, M., Wen, T. & Wijayawardene, N.N. (2016) Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79: 1–317.

Nag Raj, T.R. (1993) Coelomycetous Anamorphs with Appendage-Bearing Conidia. Mycologue Publications, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Posada, D. & Crandall, K.A. (1998) Phylogenetic Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14: 817–818.

Rambaut, A. & Drummond, A. (2008) FigTree: Tree figure drawing tool, version 1.2. 2. Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh.

Rannala, B. & Yang, Z. (1996) Phylogenetic Probability distribution of molecular evolutionary trees: a new method of phylogenetic inference. Journal of Molecular Evolution 43: 304–311.

Saccardo, P.A. (1884) Sylloge fungorum omnium hucusque cognitorum 3: 797.

Senanayake, I.C., Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Hyde, K.D., Bhat, J.D., Gareth Jones, E.B., McKenzie, E.H.C., Dai, D.Q., Daranagama, D.A., Dayarathne, M.C., Goonasekara, I.D., Konta, S., Li, W.J., Shang, Q.J., Stadler, M., Wijayawardene, N.N., Xiao, Y.P., Norphanphoun, C., Li, Q., Liu, X.Z., Bahkali, A.H., Kang, J.C., Wang, Y., Wen, T.C., Wendt, L., Xu, J.C. & Camporesi, E. (2015) Towards unraveling relationships in Xylariomycetidae (Sordariomycetes). Fungal Diversity 73: 73–144.

Silvestro D. & Michalak I. (2012) raxmlGUI: a graphical front-end for RAxML. Organisms Diversity and Evolution 12: 335–337.

Steyaert, R.L. (1949) Contribution à l’étude monographique de Pestalotia De Not. et Monochaetia Sacc. (Truncatella gen. nov. et Pestalotiopsis gen. nov.). Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l’État à Bruxelles 19: 285–354.

Swofford, D.L. (2003) PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). Version 4. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.

Vilgalys, R. & Hester, M. (1990) Rapid genetic identification and mapping of enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA from several Cryptococcus species. Journal of Bacteriology 172: 4238–4246.

White, T.J., Bruns, T., Lee, S. & Taylor, J. (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis, M.A., Gelfand, D.H., Sninsky, J.J. & White, J. (Eds.) PCR Protocols, a Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press. San Diego, Ca, USA, pp. 315–322.

Wijayawardene, N.N., Hyde, K.D., Wanasinghe, D.N., Papizadeh, M., Goonasekara, I.D., Camporesi, E., Bhat, D.J., McKenzie, E.H.C., Phillips, A.J.L., Diederich, P., Tanaka, K., Li, W.J., Tangthirasunun, N., Phookamsak, R., Dai, D.Q., Dissanayake, A.J., Weerakoon, G., Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Hashimoto, A., Matsumura, M., Bahkali, A.H. & Wang, Y. (2016) Taxonomy and phylogeny of dematiaceous coelomycetes. Fungal Diversity 77: 1–316.

Zhaxybayeva, O. & Gogarten, J.P. (2002) Phylogenetic Bootstrap, Bayesian probability and maximum likelihood mapping: exploring new tools for comparative genome analyses. BMC Genomics 3: 1.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand