Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.282.2.1

Tracing the Evolution and Economic Potential of Konjac Glucomannan in Amorphophallus species (Araceae) using Molecular Phylogeny and RAPD Markers

ORACHORN MEKKERDCHOO, CHALEEDA BOROMPICHAICHARTKUL, ALLISON PERRIGO, GEORGE SRZEDNICKI, CHEUNJIT PRAKITCHAIWATTANA, ALEXANDRE ANTONELLI

Abstract


The genus Amorphophallus is an economically important taxon that is abundant in Old World tropical forests (Asia, Oceania and Africa). It includes many species that are used with increasing frequency as a source of food and pharmaceutical products worldwide. Amorphophallus konjac is an important economic crop and has been used widely in China and Japan for commercial konjac glucomannan (KGM) production. However, the species’ range does not extend to Thailand, where other closely related species may be more suitable for commercial KGM production. Present understanding of genetic relationships among Thai Amorphophallus species is still limited, and the connection between evolutionary history and KGM content is unknown. Here, the genetic relationships among various accessions of Amorphophallus spp. collected in Thailand are investigated using the chloroplast trnL-trnF spacer, nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the second intron of LEAFY (FLint2) together with genome-wide DNA variation analysis, Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. RAPD primers are also developed to quickly and efficiently identify species producing high levels of KGM. This study finds that two monophyletic clades include high KGM content species. RAPD analyses indicate that primer AC-10 generates specific bands identifying species belonging only to the high and medium KGM content clades.  These primers can be used as a screening tool for economical species, aiming at improving the industrial production of KGM in Thailand and the world.


Keywords


Amorphophallus spp., DNA sequencing, glucomannan, konjac, RAPD, Monocots

References


Akesowan, A. (1991) Production of kabuk flour from elephant yam (Amorphophallus sp.) for some food products. Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 119 pp.

Alderwerelt van Rosenburgh, C.R.W.K. (1920) New or noteworthy Malayan Araceae. Bulletin Jardin Botanical Buitenzorg 1: 359–389.

Alvarez, I. & Wendel, J.F. (2003) Ribosomal ITS sequences and plant phylogenetic inference. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29: 417–434.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00208-2

Antonelli, A. (2008) Higher level phylogeny and evolutionary trends in Campanulaceae subfam. Lobelioideae: Molecular signal overshadows morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46: 1–18.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2007.06.015

Arcangeli, G. (1879) Bullettino della R[eale] Società Toscana d’Orticultura. Florence.

Atienzar, F. & Jha, A. (2006) The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and related techniques applied to genotoxicity and carcinogenesis studies: A critical review. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research 613: 76–102.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrrev.2006.06.001

Bardakci, F. (2001) Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Turkish Journal of Biology 25: 185–196.

Blume, C.L. (1837) Rumphia. C.G. Sulpke, Amsterdam, pp. 1–204.

Bogner, J. & Hetterscheid, W.L A. (1992) Notes on the genus Amorphophallus (Araceae). Blumea 36: 467–475.

Bogner, J. (1976) Eine neue Thomsonia-Art (Araceae) aus Thailand. Plant Systematic Evolution 125: 15–20.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00986127

Bogner, J. & Mayo, S.J. (1985) New and changing concepts in Amorphophallus. Aroideana 8: 15–25.

Botstein, D., White, R.L., Skolnick, M. & Davis, R.W. (1980) Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. American Journal of Human Genetics 32: 314.

Boyce, P., Sookchaloem, D., Hetterscheid, W.L.A., Gusman, G., Jacobsen, N.G., Idei, T. & Van Du, N. (2012) Amorphophallus. In: Phengklai, C., Santisuk, T., Pedersen, H., Parnell, J., Middleton, D., Newman, M., Simpson, D.A., Tamura, M., Welzen, P.C., Esser, H.J., Hual, S. & Kato, M. (Eds.) Flora of Thailand. Drachachon, Bangkok, pp. 130–186.

Brown, N.E. (1885) Gardeners’ Chronicle. Absorbed Gardening Illustrated and the Greenhouse, London, 844 pp.

Brown, N.E. (1901) Araceae. Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, ser 2 1: 777–778.

Brown, N.E. (1912) Four new genera of Aroideae. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 12: 269–280.

Brozynska, M., Furtado, A. & Henry, R.J. (2016) Genomics of crop wild relatives: expanding the gene pool for crop improvement. Plant Biotechnology Journal 14: 1070–1085.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12454

Chua, M., Baldwin, T.C., Hocking, T.J. & Chan, K. (2010) Traditional uses and potential health benefits of Amorphophallus konjac K.Koch ex N.E.Br. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128: 268–278.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.021

Chua, M., Chan, K., Hocking, T.J., Williams, P.A., Perry, C.J. & Baldwin, T.C. (2012) Methodologies for the extraction and analysis of konjac glucomannan from corms of Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch. Carbohydrate Polymer 87: 2202–2210.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.10.053

Craib, W.G. (1912) Contributions to the Flora of Siam. II. List of Siamese plants with descriptions of new species. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1911: 7–60.

Decaisne, M.J. (1834) Description D’un herbier de L’ile de Timor. Nouvelles Annales du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle. Paris 3: 333–501.

Decne, N.R. (1834) Herbarth timorensis descriptio Aroidee. Nouvelles Annales du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle. Paris 3: 366–370.

Dennstedt, A.W. (1818) Schlüssel zum Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. Oder dreifaches Register zu diesem Werke, Weimar, 275 pp.

Diao, Y., Yang, C., Yan, M., Zheng, X., Jin, S., Wang, Y. & Hu, Z. (2014) De novo transcriptome and small RNA analyses of two Amorphophallus species. PLoS ONE 23: 95428.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095428

Douglas, J.A., Follett, J.M. & Waller, J.E. (2005) Research on konjac (Amorphophallus konjac) production in New Zealand. Acta Horticulturae 670: 173–180.

https://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.670.20

Engler, A. (1902) Araceae. Botanisk Tidsskrift 24: 272–276.

Engler, A. (1911) Araceae-Lasioideae. In: Engler, A. (Ed.) Das Pflanzenreich IV 23C (48). Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, pp. 1–130.

Engler, A. (1923) Bericht über den Botanischen Garten und das Botanische Museum zu Berlin im Rechnungsjahr. Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 8: 451–460.

Engler, A. & Gehrmann, D. (1911) Araceae-Lasioideae. Das Pjlanzenr 1: 70–145.

Fang, W. & Wu, P. (2004) Variations of Konjac glucomannan (KGM) from Amorphophallus konjac and its refined powder in China. Food Hydrocolloids 18: 167–170.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0268-005X(03)00044-4

Feng, J., Jiang, D., Shang, H., Dong, M., Wang, G., He, X., Zhao, C. & Mao, K. (2013) Barcoding poplars (Populus L.) from western China. PLoS ONE 8: e71710.

https://dx.doi.org/10.137 1/journal.pone.0071710

Gagnepain, F. (1941) Aracees nouvelles Indochinoises. Notulae Systematicae 9: 116–140.

Gagnepain, F. (1942) Aracees. In: Lecomte, H. (Ed.) Flore Genereale deIndochine. Masson, Paris, pp. 1075–1196.

Gille, S., Cheng, K., Skinner, M.E., Liepman, A.H., Wilkerson, C.G. & Pauly, M. (2011) Deep sequencing of voodoo lily (Amorphophallus konjac): an approach to identify relevant genes involved in the synthesis of the hemicellulose glucomannan. Planta 234: 515–526.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-011-1422-z.

Gillings, M. & Holley, M. (1997) Amplification of anonymous DNA fragments using pairs of long primers generates reproducible DNA fingerprints that are sensitive to genetic variation. Electrophoresis 18: 1512–1518.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.1150180904

Giordano, C. (1999) Karyological and palynological observations on Amorphophallus titanum (becc.) becc. ex arcangeli (araceae). Caryologia 52: 65–73.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00087114.1998.10589155

Grob, G.B.J., Gravendeel, B. & Eurlings, M.C.M. (2004) Potential phylogenetic utility of the nuclear FLORICAULA/LEAFY second intron: comparison with three chloroplast DNA regions in Amorphophallus (Araceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 13–23.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00183-0

Grob, G.B.J., Gravendeel, B., Eurlings, M.C.M. & Hetterscheid, W.L.A. (2002) Phylogeny of the tribe thomsonieae (Araceae) based on chloroplast matK and trnL intron sequences. Systematic Botany 27: 453–467.

Henry, R.J. & Nevo, E. (2014) Exploring natural selection to guide breeding for agriculture. Plant Biotechnology Journal 12: 655–662.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12215

Hetterscheid, W.L.A. (1994) Notes on the genus Amorphophallus (Araceae)—2. Blumea 39: 237–281.

Hetterscheid, W.L.A. (2003) Notes on the Genus Amorphophallus 12: Three New Species from Tropical Asia. Aroideana 26: 113–119.

Hetterscheid, W.L.A. (2006) Notes on the Genus Amorphophallus (Araceae) 15. New Species from SE Asia. Aroideana 29: 53–79.

Hetterscheid, W.L.A., Claudel, C., & Flottbek, B.K. (2012) The end of Pseudodracontium NE Br. Aroideana 35: 40–46.

Hetterscheid, W.L.A. & Galloway, A. (2006) New Typhonium (Araceae) species from Thailand. Aroideana 29: 80–85.

Hetterscheid, W.L.A. & Ittenbach, S. (1996) Everything you always wanted to know about Amorphophallus, but were afraid to stick your nose into. Aroideana 19: 7–131.

Hetterscheid, W.L.A., & Van der Ham, R.W.J.M. (2001) Notes on the genus Amorphophallus (Araceae)—11. Blumea, 46: 253–282.

Hetterscheid, W.L.A., Wistuba, A., Amoroso, V., Medecilo, M. & Claudel, C. (2012) Amorphophallus natolii (Araceae), a new species from limestone on Palawan, Philippines. Botanical Studies 53: 415–420.

Holder, M. & Lewis, P.O. (2003) Phylogeny estimation: traditional and Bayesian approaches. Nature Reviews Genetics 4: 275–284.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrg1044

Hooker, J.D. (1894) Amorphophallus. In: Hooker, J.D. (Ed.) Flora of British India. Reeve & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 513–519.

Horita, M., Tsuchiya, K. & Ooshiro, A. (2005) Characteristics of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar N2 strains in Asia. Journal of Phytopathology 153: 209–213.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0434.2005.00954.x

Hu, S.Y. (1968) Pycnospatha. Dansk Botanisk Arkiv Udgivet af Dansk Botanisk Forening 23: 440–453.

Hu, J., Gao, X., Liu, J., Xie, C. & Li, J. (2008) Plant regeneration from petiole callus of Amorphophallus albus and analysis of somaclonal variation of regenerated plants by RAPD and ISSR markers. Botanical Studies 49: 189–197.

Impaprasert, R. (2013) Production of purified konjac flour from corms of Buk Nuea Sai Amorphophallus muelleri. Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 222 pp.

Kadprasert, K. (2004) Konjac and utilization of konjac in Thailand. Department of Agriculture Press, Bangkok, 250 pp.

Kearse, M., Moir, R., Wilson, A., Stones-Havas, S., Cheung, M., Sturrock, S., Buxton, S., Cooper, A., Markowitz, S., Duran, C., Thierer, T., Ashton, B., Meintjes, P. & Drummond, A. (2012) Geneious Basic: An integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics 28: 1647–1649.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts199

Kite, G.C. & Hetterscheid, W.L.A. (1997) Inflorescense odours of Amorphophallus and Pseudodracontium (Araceae). Phytochemistry 46: 71–75.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00221-5

Kite, G.C., Hetterscheid, W.L.A., Lewis, M.J., Boyce, P.C., Ollerton, J., Cocklin, E., Diaz, A. & Simmonds, M.S.J. (1998) Inflorescence odours and pollinators of Arum and Amorphophallus (Araceae). In: Owens, S.J. & Rudall, P.J. (Eds.) Reproductive Biology. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 295–315.

Koch, K. (1858) Wochenschrift für Gärtnerei und Pflanzenkunde. Verlag Von Karl Wiegandt, Berlin, 495 pp.

Larsen, K. & Larsen, S.S. (1971) A New Amorphophallus from Thailand. Reinwardtia 9 (1): 139–142.

Li, B., Xia, J., Wang, Y. & Xie, B.J. (2005) Grain-size effect on the structure and antiobesity activity of konjac flour. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53: 7404–7407.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf050751q

Li, D.Z., Gao, L.M., Li, H.T., Wang, H., Ge, X.J., Liu, J.Q., Chen, Z.D., Zhou, S.L., Chen, S,L., Yang, J.B., Fu, C.X., Zeng, C.X., Yan, H.F., Zhu, Y.J., Sun, Y.S., Chen, S.Y., Zhao, L., Wang, K., Yang, T. & Duan, G.W. (2011) Comparative analysis of a large dataset indicates that internal transcribed spacer (ITS) should be incorporated into the core barcode for seed plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 108: 19641–19646.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1104551108

Li, H. (1988) New taxa genus Amorphophallus from Yunnan. Journal of Wuhan Botany Reservation 6: 209–214.

Li, H. & Dao, Z.-L. (2006) A New Species of Amorphophallus (Araceae) from Yunnan, China. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 16: 240–243.

https://dx.doi.org/10.3417/1055-3177(2006)16[240:ANSOAA]2.0.CO;2

Li, H., Zhu, G., Boyce, P., Murata, J., Hetterscheid, W.L.A., Bogner, J. & Jacobsen, G. (2010) Araceae. In: Zhengyi, W., Raven, P.H. and Deyuan, H. (Eds), Flora of China, Science Press, Beijing, pp. 3–73.

Li, J.J., Pei, G.L., Pang, H.X., Bilderbeck A., Chen S.S. & Tao, S.H. (2006) A new method for RAPD primers selection based on primer bias in nucleotide sequence data. Journal of Biotechnology 126: 415–423.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2006.05.003

Liu, P.Y. (2004) Konjac. China Agriculture Press, Beijing, 134 pp.

Liu, P.Y., Zhang, S.L., Zhu, G.H., Chen, Y., Ouyang, H.X. & Han, M. (2002) Professional standard for the classification, requirements and test methods of konjac flour, Technical Report NY/T 494. Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, Sichuan, 167 pp.

Lopes, L., Pereira, O. & Baptista, P. (2012) Genetic diversity of Portuguese Arbutus unedo L. populations using leaf traits and molecular markers: An approach for conservation purposes. Scientia Horticulturae 142: 57–67.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.04.031

Luo, X., He, P. & Lin, X. (2013) The mechanism of sodium hydroxide solution promoting the gelation of Konjac glucomannan (KGM). Food Hydrocolloids 30: 92–99.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.05.012

Masters, M.T. (1884) New garden plants.The Gardeners’ Chronicle: a Weekly Illustrated Journal of Horticulture and Allied Subjects 22: 680.

Mishra, P., Kumar, A., Nagireddy, A., Mani, D. N., Shukla, A. K., Tiwari, R. & Sundaresan, V. (2016) DNA barcoding: an efficient tool to overcome authentication challenges in the herbal market. Plant Biotechnology Journal 14: 8–21.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12419

Miquel, F. A.G. (1863) Araceae. Annales Musei botanici lugduno-batavi 1: 278–286.

Müller, K. (2005) SeqState - primer design and sequence statistics for phylogenetic DNA data sets. Applied Bioinformatics 4: 65–69.

https://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00822942-200504010-00008

Nagy, S., Poczai, P., Cernák, I., Gorji, A. M., Hegedűs, G. & Taller, J. (2012) PICcalc: an online program to calculate polymorphic information content for molecular genetic studies. Biochemical Genetics 50: 670–672.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10528-012-9509-1

Nei, M. & Li, W.H. (1979) Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 76: 5269–5273.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.76.10.5269

Nicolson, D.H. (1977) Nomina conservanda proposita: Proposal to change the typification of 723 Amorphophallus, nom. cons. (Araceae) Taxon 26: 337–338.

https://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1220579

Nishat, S., Hamima, I., Khalil, M.I., Ali, M.A., Ali Hossain, M., Bahadur Meah, M. & Rashidul Islam, M. (2015) Genetic diversity of the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum using a RAPD marker. Comptes Rendus Biologies 338: 757–767.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2015.06.009

Nishinari, K. (2000) Konjac Glucomannan in Novel Food Macromolecules. IRL Press, Oxford, 120 pp.

Noormohammadi, Z. (2013) Bayesian analysis of species relationship in genus sargassum: oman sea and persian gulf. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences 3: 268–278.

Nylander, J.A.A. (2012) Testing models of evolution—MrModeltest, version 2.1.1. Avaible from: https://www.ebc.uu.se/systzoo/staff/nylander.html (accessed 1 October 2016)

Poerba, Y.S. & Martanti, D. (2008) Genetic variability of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume in Java based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Biodiversitas 9: 245–249.

https://dx.doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d120301

Poerba, Y.S. & Yuzammi, Y. (2008) Estimation of genetic variation of Amorphophallus titanium Becc. based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Biodiversitas 9: 103–107.

https://dx.doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d090206

Popp, M. & Oxelman, B. (2001) Inferring the history of the polyploidy Silene aegaea (Caryophyllaceae) using plastid and homoeologous nuclear DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20: 474–481.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1006/mpev.2001.0977

Posada, D. (2008) jModelTest: Phylogenetic Model Averaging. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25: 1253–1256.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msn083

Prain, D. (1893) On the flora of Narcondum and Barren Islands. Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal 62: 39–86.

Punekar, S.A. & Kumaran, K.P.N. (2010) Pollen morphology and pollination ecology of Amorphophallus species from North Western Ghats and Konkan region of India. Flora 205: 326–336.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2009.12.024

Ramadugu, C., Keremane, M.L., Hu, X., Karp, D., Federici, C.T., Kahn, T., Roose, M.L. & Lee, R.F. (2015) Genetic analysis of citron (Citrus medica L.) using simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Scientia Horticulturae 195: 124–137.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.09.004

Ridley, H.N. (1903) New Malay orchids. Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 41: 47–87.

Ridley, H.N. (1912) The Gymnosperms of the Malay Peninsula. Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 61: 53–68.

Ridley, H.N. (1925) Flora of the Malay Peninsula. Reeve & Co., London, 247 pp.

Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572–1574.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180

Sanguanpong, W., Panya, S., Ampawan, S., Nuajarern, P., Tungtakul, S. & Sukumalanand, T. (2002) The Study on growth, production yield and flour quality of Amorphophallus muelleri for development of commercial potentiality of the plant. Maejo University Press, Chiang Mai, 238 pp.

Santosa, E., Sugiyama, N., Hikosaka, S. & Kawabata, S. (2003) Cultivation of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume in timber forests of East Java, Indonesia. The Journal of Tropical Agriculture 47: 190–197.

https://dx.doi.org/10.11248/jsta1957.47.190

Schott, H.W. (1856) Synopsis Aroidearum complectans. Vindobonae, Vienna, 140 pp.

Sedayu, A., Eurlings, M.C.M., Gravendeel, B. & Hetterscheid, W.L.A. (2010) Morphological character evolution of Amorphophallus (Araceae) based on a combined phylogenetic analysis of trnL, rbcL and LEAFY second intron sequences. Botanical Studies 51: 473–490.

Serebryanyi, M.M. (1995) A taxonomic revision of Pseudodracontium (Araceae-Aroideae-Thomsonieae). Blumea 40: 217–235.

Simmons, M.P. & Ochoterena, H. (2000) Gaps as characters in sequence-based phylogenetic analyses. Systematic Biology 49: 369–381.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/49.2.369

Taberlet, P., Gielly, L., Pautou, G. & Bouvet, J. (1991) Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Plant Molecular Biology 17: 1105–1109.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00037152

Teijmann, J.E. & Binnendijk, S. (1862) Plantae novae in horto bogoriensi cultae. Natuurkundig tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië 24: 304–332.

Turner, B., Munzinger, J., Duangjai, S., Temsch, E.M., Stockenhuber, R., Barfuss, M.H., Chase, M.W. & Samuel, R. (2013) Molecular phylogenetics of New Caledonian Diospyros (Ebenaceae) using plastid and nuclear markers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 69: 740–763.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2013.07.002

Wahyudi, D., Azrianingsih, R. & Mastuti, R. (2013) Genetic variability of porang populations (Amorphophallus muelleri) in West Java and Central Java based on trnL intron sequences. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 3: 31–41.

Williams, J.G., Kubelik, A.R., Livak, K.J., Rafalski, J.A. & Tingey, S.V. (1990) DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acid Reserach 18: 6531–6535.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/18.22.6531

Wilson, C.A. (2003) Phylogenetic relationships in Iris series Californicae based on ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Systematic Botany 28: 39–46.

Yingzhi, L., Yunjiang, C., Nengguo, T. & Xiuxin, D. (2007) Phylogenetic analysis of mandarin landraces, wild mandarins, and related species in China using nuclear LEAFY second intron and plastid trnL-trnF sequence. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 132: 796–806.

Zhang, D.H., Wang, Q. & Srzednicki, G. (2010) Mechanism of staggered multiple seedling production from Amorphophallus bulbifer and Amorphophallus muelleri and its application to cultivation in South East Asia. Tropical Agriculture and Development 54: 84–90.

https://dx.doi.org/10.11248/jsta.54.84

Zhang, D.H., Wang, Q.P., Duan, Z.B. & Mi, K.X. (2009) Mechanism of relay multi - seedling release Amorphophallus bulbifer and its application in Southeast Asia. Resource Development and Market 25: 682–684.

Zhang, S. & Liu, Y. (2006) Small Konjac could be a Big Industry in China New Countryside. Hubei Press, Jianshi, 37 pp.

Zhang, Y.Q., Xie, B.J. & Gan, X. (2005) Advance in the applications of konjac glucomannan and its derivatives. Carbohydrate Polymer 60: 27–31.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2004.11.003

Zhao, J. (2010) Optimization of the Production of Purified Konjac Flour. In: Postharvest Technology. King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, 121 pp.

Zhao, J., Zhang, D., Srzednicki, G., Kanlayanarat, S. & Borompichaichartkul, C. (2010) Development of a low-cost two-stage technique for production. International Food Research Journal 17: 1113–1124.

Zheng, X., Pan, C., Diao, Y., You, Y., Yang, C. & Hu, Z. (2013) Development of microsatellite markers by transcriptome sequencing in two species of Amorphophallus (Araceae). BMC Genomics 14: 490.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-490


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand