Occurrence of Rhinella rubescens (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Bufonidae): a toad with distribution strongly predicted by altitude and temperature

Alejandro Valencia-Zuleta, Paula Hanna Valdujo, Natan Medeiros Maciel

Abstract


The rufous toad (Rhinella rubescens) is an endemic Brazilian amphibian known from the Cerrado Biome. In this paper we analyse the recorded distribution of this species based on registries deposited in collections and literaturebased records. Here we estimate the habitat suitability of R. rubescens using Maxent. We found that although this species is predominately distributed within the Cerrado, occur also in the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga biomes. The distribution appears to be restricted to altitudinal ranges between 400 and 1400 m above the sea level. Moreover, its distribution is also strongly influenced by temperature and precipitation. Our analyses recovered a low support for the distribution of this species in the States of Pará, Piauí and Tocantins, as early indicated in the literature. However, high suitability was recovered between the limits of Tocantins and Goiás states, which should be verified. The hypothesized distribution provided here for R. rubescens differs in area from presented by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Therefore, results delivered here could improve knowledge for future research approaching new possible localities verification, reassessment conservation category, and scenarios with the climate change of the rufous toad.



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