Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3816.1.1

Ticks of Australia. The species that infest domestic animals and humans

STEPHEN C. BARKER, ALAN R. WALKER

Abstract


The book Australian Ticks by F.H.S. Roberts (1970) is a land-mark in Australian tick biology. But it is time for a new and improved book on the ticks of Australia. The present book has identification guides and accounts of the biology and diseases associated with the 16 species of ticks that may feed on domestic animals and humans in Australia. These comprise five argasid (soft) ticks: Argas persicus (poultry tick), Argas robertsi (Robert’s bird tick), Ornithodoros capensis (seabird soft tick), O. gurneyi (kangaroo soft tick), Otobius megnini (spinose ear tick); and 11 ixodid (hard) ticks, Amblyomma triguttatum (ornate kangaroo tick), Bothriocroton auruginans (wombat tick), B. hydrosauri (southern reptile tick), Haemaphysalis bancrofti (wallaby tick), H. longicornis (bush tick), Ixodes cornuatus (southern paralysis tick), I. hirsti (Hirst's marsupial tick), I. holocyclus (paralysis tick), I. tasmani (common marsupial tick), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) australis (Australian cattle tick) and R. sanguineus (brown dog tick).  We use an image-matching system to identify ticks, much like the image-matching systems used in field-guides for birds and flowers. Ticks may be identified by drawings that emphasise unique matrices of uniformly defined morphological characters that, together, allow these 16 ticks to be identified by morphology unequivocally. The species accounts have seven sections: (i) General; (ii)  Differential diagnosis; (iii) Hosts; (iv) Life-cycle and seasonality; (v) Disease; (vi) Habitat and geographic distribution; (vii) Genes and genomes; and (viii) Other information. There are 71 figures and tables, including a glossary character matrices, drawings of life-cycles, drawings of genera, species, and colour photographs of tick biology.


Keywords


Ixodida, Ixodidae, Argasidae, ticks, illustrated diagnostic guide

Full Text:

PDF/A (56.60 MB)

References


Allen, J.R., Doube, B.M. & Kemp, D.H. (1977) Histology of bovine skin reactions to Ixodes holocyclus Neumann. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine, 41, 26–35.

Amerson, A.B. Jr. (1966) Ornithodoros capensis (Acarina: Argasidae) infesting sooty tern (Sterna fuscata) nasal cavities. Journal of Parasitology, 52, 1220–1221.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3276376

Amerson, A.B. Jr. (1968) Tick distribution in the central Pacific as influenced by sea bird movements. Journal of Medical Entomology, 5, 332–330.

Andrew, R., Bonnin, J.M. & Williams, S.M. (1946) Tick typhus in north Queensland. Medical Journal of Australia, II, 253–258.

Andrews, R H. & Bull, C.M. (1980) Mating behaviour in the Australian reptile tick Aponomma hydrosauri. Animal Behaviour, 28, 1280–1286.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0003-3472(80)80116-3

Andrews, R.H. & Bull, C.M. (1981) Inhibition of mating behaviour before feeding in the tick Aponomma hydrosauri. Animal Behaviour, 29, 518–522.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0003-3472(81)80113-3

Andrews, R.H., Beveridge, I., Bull, C.M., Chilton, N.B., Dixon, B. & Petney, T. (2006) Systematic status of Aponomma tachyglossi Roberts (Acari: Ixodidae) from echidnas, Tachyglossus aculeatus, from Queensland, Australia. Systematic & Applied Acarology, 11, 23–29.

Anonymous (1984). Ticks and tick–borne disease control. Volume I, Tick Control; Volume II, Tick–borne disease control. Food & Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 621 pp.

Arundel, J.H. (1984) External parasites of cats. Refresher course for veterinarians. University of Sydney Proceedings, 53, 185–192.

Arundel, J.H. & Sutherland, A.K. (1988) Ectoparasitic diseases of sheep, cattle, goats and horses. Animal Health in Australia. Australian Government Publisher (AGPS), Canberra, Australia. vol 10, pp. 178.

Atwell, R.B. (2011a) Paralysis in dogs with Ixodes holocyclus infestation. Australian Veterinary Practitioner, 41, 34–35.

Atwell, R B. (2011b) Tick (Ixodes holocyclus) loads and exposure. Australian Veterinary Practitioner, 41, 36–36.

Atwell, R.B., Campbell, F.E. & Evans, E.A. (2001) Prospective survey of tick paralysis in dogs. Australian Veterinary Journal, 79, 412–418.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2001.tb12986.x

Austin, F.J. (1978) Johnston Atoll virus (Quaranfil group) from Ornithodoros capensis (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) infesting a gannet colony in New Zealand. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, 27, 1045–1048.

Bagnall, B.G. & Doube, B.M. (1975) The Australian paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus. Australian Veterinary Journal, 51, 159–160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1975.tb09444.x

Banazis, M.J., Bestall, A.S., Reid, S.A. & Fenwick, S.G. (2010) A survey of Western Australian sheep, cattle and kangaroos to determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii. Veterinary Microbiology, 143, 337–345.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.12.002

Bancroft, J. (1884) Queensland ticks and tick blindness. Australasian Medical Gazette, 4, 37–38.

Banyard, M. (2013) Ixodes holocyclus in cooler climate regions. Australian Veterinary Journal, 91 (8), page N26.

Barker, S.C. (1998) Distinguishing species and populations of rhipicephaline ticks with its 2 ribosomal RNA. Journal of Parasitology, 84, 887–892.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3284614

Barker, S.C. (2003) The Australian paralysis tick may be the missing link in the transmission of Hendra virus from bats to horses to humans. Medical Hypotheses, 60, 481–483.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0306-9877(02)00377-8

Barker, S.C. & Murrell, A. (2002) Phylogeny, evolution and historical zoogeography of ticks: a review of recent progress. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 28, 55–68.

Barker, S.C. & Murrell, A. (2004) Systematics and evolution of ticks with a list of valid genus and species names. Parasitology, 129 Suppl, S15–36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0031182004005207

Barker, S.C. & Murrell, A. (2008) Systematics and evolution of ticks with a list of valid genus and species names. In: Bowman, A. S.& Nuttall, P. A. (Eds), Ticks: biology, disease and control. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 1–39.

Barker, S., Walker, A.R. & Campelo, O. (2014) A list of the 70 species of Australian ticks with diagnostic guides to and species accounts of Ixodes holocyclus, I. cornuatus and Rhipicephalus australis, and comments on the evolutionary origin of ticks which may have been Australia. International Journal for Parasitology.

Barnes, T.S., Goldizen, A.W., Morton, J.M. & Coleman, G.T. (2010) Parasites of the brush–tailed rock–wallaby (Petrogale penicillata). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 46, 218–228.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-46.1.218

Bastos, A.D., Arnot, L.F., Jacquier, M.D. & Maree, S. (2009) A host species–informative internal control for molecular assessment of African swine fever virus infection rates in the African sylvatic cycle Ornithodoros vector. Medical & Veterinary Entomology, 23, 399–409.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2009.00828.x

Beaman, M.H. & Hung, J. (1989) Pericarditis associated with tick–borne Q fever. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Medicine, 19, 254–256.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1445-5994.1989.tb00258.x

Bennett, M.D., Woolford, L., Banazis, M. J., O'Hara, A. J., Warren, K. S., Nicholls, P. K., Sims, C. & Fenwick, S. G. (2011) Coxiella burnetii in western barred bandicoots (Perameles bougainville) from Bernier and Dorre Islands in Western Australia. EcoHealth, 8, 519–524.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-011-0729-3

Besier, R.B. & Wroth, R. (1985) Discovery of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis in Western Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal, 62, 205–206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1985.tb07304.x

Beveridge, I. (1991) Ixodes holocyclus in the Melbourne metropolitan area. Australian Veterinary Journal, 68, 214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1991.tb03201.x

Beveridge, I. & Barker, I. K. (1976). The parasites of Antechinus stuartii Macleay from Powelltown, Victoria, with observations on seasonal and sex-related variations in numbers of helminths. Australian Journal of Zoology, 24, 265–272.

Beveridge, I., Presidente, P.J.A. & Speare, R. (1985) Parasites and associated pathology of the swamp wallaby, Wallabia bicolor (Marsupialia). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 21, 377–385.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-21.4.377

Beveridge, I., Coleman, G., Gartrell, W., Hitchman, A. & Whitnall, V. (2004) Tick paralysis of dogs in Victoria due to Ixodes cornuatus. Australian Veterinary Journal, 82, 642–643.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2004.tb12617.x

Binnington, K.C.K. (1972) The distribution and morphology of probable photoreceptors in eight species of ticks (lxodoidea). Zeitschrift Parasitenk, 40, 321–332.

Black, W.C. IV & Piesman, J. (1994) Phylogeny of hard– and soft–tick taxa (Acari: Ixodida) based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 91, 10034–10038.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.91.21.10034

Black, W.C. IV & Roehrdanz, R.L. (1998) Mitochondrial gene order is not conserved in arthropods: prostriate and metastriate tick mitochondrial genomes. Molecular Biology & Evolution, 15, 1772–1785.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025903

Black, W.C. IV, Klompen, J.S.H. & Keirans, J.E. (1997) Phylogenetic relationships among tick subfamilies (Ixodida: Ixodidae: Argasidae) based on the 18S nuclear rDNA gene. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution, 7, 129–144.

Bolton, J.A., Schull, D.N., Morton, J.M. & Atwell, R.B. (2011) Changes in WBC Counts associated with Ixodes holocyclus prior to clinical intoxication in dogs. Australian Veterinary Practitioner, 41, 29–32.

Bootes, B.W. (1962) A fatal paralysis in foals from Ixodes holocyclus Neumann infestation. Australian Veterinary Journal, 38, 68–69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1962.tb08725.x

Bouma, M.J., Smallridge, C.J., Bull, C.M. & Komdeur, J. (2007) Susceptibility to infection by a haemogregarine parasite and the impact of infection in the Australian sleepy lizard Tiliqua rugosa. Parasitology Research, 100, 949–954.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-006-0379-5

Bowman, A.S. & Nuttall, P A. (2008) Ticks: biology, disease and control. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 506 pp.

Bremner, K.L. (1959) Observations on the biology of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae) with particular reference to its mode of reproduction by parthenogenesis. Australian Journal of Zoology, 7, 7–12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/zo9590007

Brody, J. (1946) A case of tick typhus in north Queensland. Medical Journal of Australia, 1, 511–512.

Browning, T.O. (1962) Distribution of the kangaroo tick Ornithodorus gurneyi in arid South Australia. Nature, 194, 162–164.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/194162a0

Buettner, P.G., Westcott, D.A., Maclean, J., Brown, L., McKeown, A., Johnson, A., Wilson, K., Blair, D., Luly, J., Skerratt, L., Muller, R. & Speare, R. (2013) Tick paralysis in spectacled flying–foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus) in North Queensland, Australia: impact of a ground–dwelling ectoparasite finding an arboreal host. PLoS One, 8, e73078.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073078

Bull, C.M. (1978a) Dispersal of the Australian reptile tick Aponomma hydrosauri by host movement. Australian Journal of Zoology, 26, 689–697.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/zo9780689

Bull, C.M. (1978b) Heterogeneity of resource utilization in a population of the Australian reptile tick, Aponomma hydrosauri (Denny). Ecological Entomology, 3, 171–179.

Bull, C.M. (1985) Geographical variation in the morphology of Aponomma hydrosauri (Denny) (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 24, 1–8.

Bull, C.M. (1986) Ticks on reptiles, a difference of scale. In:. Sauer, J. R & Hair, J. A. (Eds), Morphology, Physiology, and Behavioral Biology of Ticks. Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester, New York, USA, pp. 391–405.

Bull, C.M. (1987) Ecological processes in reptile ticks. Entomological Society of Queensland News Bulletin, 15, 91–98.

Bull, C.M. & Sharrad, R.D. (1980) Seasonal activity of the reptile tick, Aponomma hydrosauri (Denny) (Acari: Ixodidae) in experimental enclosures. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 19, 47–52.

Bull, C.M. & King, D.R. (1981) A parapatric boundary between two species of reptile ticks in the Albany area, Western Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 105, 205–208.

Bull, C.M. & Burzacott, D. (1994) Reproductive interactions between two Australian reptile tick species. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 18, 555–565.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00058938

Bull, C.M. & Burzacott, D.A. (2006) The influence of parasites on the retention of long–term partnerships in the Australian sleepy lizard, Tiliqua rugosa. Oecologia (Berlin), 146, 675–680.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-005-0224-z

Bull, C.M., Sharrad, R.D. & Petney, T.N. (1981) Parapatric boundaries between Australian reptile ticks. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia, 11, 95–107.

Bull, P.C. (1953) Parasites of the wild rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science & Technology, 34B, 341–372.

Burger, T., Shao, R., & Barker, S.C. (2013) Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genomes and nuclear rRNA genes of ticks reveals a deep phylogenetic structure within the genus Haemaphysalis and further elucidates the polyphyly of the genus Amblyomma with respect to Amblyomma sphenodonti and Amblyomma elaphense. Ticks & Tick Borne Diseases, 4, 265–274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013.02.002

Burger, T.D., Shao, R., Labruna, M.B. & Barker, S.C. (2014a) Molecular phylogeny of soft ticks (Ixodida: Argasidae) inferred from mitochondrial genome and nuclear rRNA sequences. Ticks &Tick Borne Diseases 5, 195–207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013.10.009

Burger, T.D., Shao, R. & Barker, S.C. (2014b) Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences indicates that the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, contains a cryptic species. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 76, 241–253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2014.03.017

Burger, T.D., Shao, R., Beati, L., Miller, H. & Barker, S.C. (2012) Phylogenetic analysis of ticks (Acari: Ixodida) using mitochondrial genomes and nuclear rRNA genes indicates that the genus Amblyomma is polyphyletic. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution, 64, 45–55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.03.004

Burlini, L., Teixeira, K.R., Szabo, M.P. & Famadas, K.M. (2010) Molecular dissimilarities of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Brazil and its relation with samples throughout the world: is there a geographical pattern? Experimental & Applied Acarology, 50, 361–374.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-009-9321-8

Camicas, J.L., Hervy, J.P., Adam, F. & Morel, P.C. (1998) Les Tiques du monde. Nomenclature, stades décrits, hôtes, répartition. The Ticks of the World. Nomenclature, described stages, hosts, distribution. (Acarida, Ixodida), Orstom Editions Publisher, France, 233 pp.

Campbell, F.E. & Atwell, R.B. (2003) Heart failure in dogs with tick paralysis caused by the Australian paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus. The International Journal of Applied Research, 1, 148–162.

Campbell, N.J. & Barker, S.C. (1998) An unprecedented major rearrangement in an arthropod mitochondrial genome. Molecular Biology Evolution, 15, 1786–1787.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025904

Campbell, N.J.H. & Barker, S.C. (1999) The novel mitochondrial gene arrangement of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus: five fold tandem repetition of a coding region. Molecular Biology & Evolution, 16, 732–740.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026158

Campbell, N.J.H., Sturm, R.A. & Barker, S.C. (2001) Large mitochondrial repeats multiplied during the polyermase chain reaction. Molecular Ecology Notes, 1, 336.

Campbell, R.W. & Domrow, R. (1974) Rickettsiosis in Australia: isolation of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi and R. australis from naturally infected arthropods. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, 68, 397–402.

Carley, J.G. & Pope, J.H. (1962) A new species of Borrelia (B. queenslandica) from Rattus villosissimus in Queensland. The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology & Medical Science, 40, 255–261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/icb.1962.29

Carne, P.B., Cantrell, B.K., Crawford, L.D., Fletcher, M.J., Galloway, I.D., Richards, K.T. & Terauds, A. (1987) Scientific and common names of insects and allied forms occuring in Australia. CSIRO, Melbourne. 42 pp.

Chapman, T.W., Marando, L., Oorebeek, M. & Kleindorfer, S. (2009) Genetic structure in ixodid ticks from Kangaroo Island and the South Australia mainland. Australian Journal of Entomology, 48, 40–46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-6055.2008.00682.x

Chigagure, N.N., Baxter, G.D. & Barker, S.C. (2000) Microsatellite loci of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Experimental & Applied Acarology, 24, 951–956.

Chilton, N.B. & Bull, C.M. (1991) A comparison of the reproductive parameters of females of two reptile tick species. International Journal for Parasitology, 21, 907–911.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(91)90165-4

Chilton, N.B. & Bull, C.M. (1993) Oviposition by two Australian species of reptile tick. Acarologia (Paris), 34, 115–121.

Chilton, N.B. & Bull, C.M. (1994) Influence of environmental factors on oviposition and egg development in Amblyomma limbatum and Aponomma hydrosauri (Acari: Ixodidae). International Journal for Parasitology, 24, 83–90.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(94)90061-2

Chilton, N.B., Bull, C.M. & Andrews, R.H. (2009) Unique biological rhythm in the reproductive behaviour of female ticks of reptiles. Parasitology, 136, 77–84.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0031182008005234

Chitimia, L., Lin, R.Q., Cosoroaba, I., Wu, X. Y., Song, H.Q., Yuan, Z.G. & Zhu, X.Q. (2010) Genetic characterization of ticks from southwestern Romania by sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and nad5 genes. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 52, 305–311.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-010-9365-9

Clark, J.H. & Clark, C. (1969) Scrub ticks and a bandicoot. The Queensland Naturalist, 19, 81.

Coetzer, J.A. W. & Tustin, R.C. (2004) Infectious disease of livestock, with special reference to Southern Africa. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2159 pp.

Converse, J.D., Hoogstraal, H., Moussa, M.I., Feare, C.J. & Kaiser, M.N. (1975) Soldado virus (Hughes group) from Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) capensis (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) infesting sooty tern colonies in the Seychelles, Indian Ocean. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, 24, 1010–1018.

Cooper, A., Hedlefs, R., Ketheesan, N. & Govan, B. (2011) Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii infection in dogs in a regional centre. Australian Veterinary Journal, 89, 385–387.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2011.00819.x

Cooper, A., Stephens, J., Ketheesan, N. & Govan, B. (2013) Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in wildlife and ticks in northern Queensland, Australia. Vector–Borne & Zoonotic Diseases, 13, 12–16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2011.0853

Cooper, A., Barnes, T., Potter, A., Ketheesan, N. & Govan, B. (2012a) Determination of Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence in macropods in Australia. Veterinary Microbiology, 155, 317–323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.08.023

Cooper, A., Goullet, M., Mitchell, J., Ketheesan, N. & Govan, B. (2012b) Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii exposure in native marsupials and introduced animals in Queensland, Australia. Epidemiology & Infection, 140, 1304–1308.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0950268811001828

Crampton, A., McKay, I. & Barker, S.C. (1996) Phylogeny of ticks (Ixodida) inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA. International Journal for Parasitology, 26, 511–517.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(96)89379-9

Derrick, E.H., Pope, J.H. & Smith, D.J.W. (1959) Outbreak of "Q" fever in Queensland associated with sheep. Medical Journal of Australia, 1, 585–594.

Dicker, R.W. (1978) The bush tick – an important cattle tick. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, 89, 10–12.

Dicker, R.W. & Sutherst, R.W. (1981) Control of the bush tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) with Zebu x European cattle. Australian Veterinary Journal, 57, 66–68.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1981.tb00446.x

Dickman, C.R. & Stodart, E. (2008) Long–nosed bandicoot Perameles nasuta. In: S. Van Dyck and R. Strahan (Eds), The mammals of Australia (third edition), Reed New Holland, Sydney, pp. 189–190.

Dobson, S.J. & Barker, S.C. (1999) Phylogeny of the hard ticks (Ixodidae) inferred from 18S rRNA indicates that the genus Aponomma is paraphyletic. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution, 11, 288–295.

Doherty, R.L. (1972) Arboviruses of Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal, 48, 172–180.

Doherty, R.L., Carley, J.G., Filippich, C. & Kay, B.H. (1976) Isolation of virus strains related to Kao Shuan Virus from Argas robertsi in Northern Territory, Australia. Search, 7, 484–486.

Doherty, R.L., Whitehead, R.H. & Wetters, E.J. (1969) Isolation of viruses from Ornithodoros capensis Neumann from a tern colony on the Great Barrier Reef, north Queensland. The Australian Journal of Science, 31, 363–364.

Domrow, R. & Smith, D.J.W. (1955) Acarina from five hundred native mammals from Queensland. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 80, 201–206.

Domrow, R. & Derrick, E.H. (1965) Ixodes holocyclus, the man–biting tick in S.E. Queensland. Australian Journal of Science, 27, 234–236.

Dong, X., El Karkouri, K., Robert, C., Raoult, D. & Fournier, P.E. (2012) Genome sequence of Rickettsia australis, the agent of Queensland tick typhus. Journal of Bacteriology, 194, 5129.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jb.01117-12

Doube, B.M. (1972) The ecology of the kangaroo tick Ornithodoros gurneyi Warbuton. PhD thesis, Waite Agricultural Research Institute, South Australia.

Doube, B.M. (1975a) The biology of the kangaroo tick, Ornithodoros (Pavlovskyella) gurneyi Warburton (Acarina: Argasidae), in the laboratory. Journal of Medical Entomology, 12, 240–243.

Doube, B.M. (1975b) Regulation of the circadian rhythm of detachment of engorged larvae and nymphs of the argasid kangaroo tick, Ornithodoros gurneyi. Journal of Medical Entomology, 12, 15–22.

Doube, B.M. (1975c) Two races of the kangaroo tick Ornithodoros (Pavlovskyella) gurneyi Warbuton. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 14, 329–332.

Doube, B.M. (1975d) Photoperiodic induction of diapause in the kangaroo tick Ornithodorus gurneyi Warburton (Acarina: Argasidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 14, 221–224.

Doube, B.M. (1975e) Cattle and the paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus. Australian Veterinary Journal, 51, 511–515.

Doube, B.M. (1979) Seasonal patterns of abundance and host relationships of the Australian paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae), in southeastern Queensland. Australian Journal of Ecology, 4, 345–360.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.1979.tb01564.x

Doube, B.M. & Kemp, D.H. (1975) Paralysis of cattle by Ixodes holocyclus Neumann. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 26, 635–640.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/ar9750635

Doube, B.M., Kemp, D. & Bird, P.E. (1977) Paralysis of calves by the tick Ixodes holocyclus. Australian Veterinary Journal, 53, 39–43.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1977.tb15819.x

Duh, D., Punda–Polic, V., Avsic–Zupanc, T., Bouyer, D., Walker, D.H., Popov, V.L., Jelovsek, M., Gracner, M., Trilar, T., Bradaric, N., Kurtti, T.J. & Strus, J. (2010) Rickettsia hoogstraalii sp. nov., isolated from hard– and soft–bodied ticks. International Journal of Systematic & Evolutionary Microbiology, 60, 977–984.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.011049-0

Dumbleton, L.J. (1961) The ticks (Acarina: Ixodoidea) of sea birds in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Science, 4, 760–769.

Dyer, J.R., Einsiedel, L., Ferguson, P.E., Lee, A.S., Unsworth, N.B., Graves, S.R. & Gordon, D.L. (2005) A new focus of Rickettsia honei spotted fever in South Australia. Medical Journal of Australia, 182, 231–234.

Eggert, C. (1994) Is tick paralysis in the spectacled flying fox, Pteropus conspicillatus related to a change in the foraging behaviour of P. conspicillatus? Unpublished BSc Honours thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia.

Eppleston, K.R., Kelman, M. & Ward, M.P. (2013) Distribution, seasonality and risk factors for tick paralysis in Australian dogs and cats. Veterinary Parasitology, 196, 460–468.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.04.011

Estrada–Peña, A., Venzal, J.M., González–Acuña, D. & Guglielmone, A. A. (2003) Argas (Persicargas) keiransi n. sp. (Acari: Argasidae), a parasite of the Chimango, Milvago c. chimango (Aves: Falconiformes) in Chile. Journal of Medical Entomology, 40, 766–769.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585-40.6.766

Estrada–Peña, A., Mangold, A.J., Nava, S., Venzal, J.M., Labruna, M. & Guglielmone, A.A. (2010) A review of the systematics of the tick family Argasidae (Ixodida). Acarologia, 50, 317–333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/acarologia/20101975

Estrada–Peña, A., Venzal, J. M., Nava, S., Mangold, A., Guglielmone, A. A., Labruna, M. B. & de la Fuente, J. (2012) Reinstatement of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) australis (Acari: Ixodidae) with redescription of the adult and larval stages. Journal of Medical Entomology, 49, 794–802.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/me11223

Feldman–Muhsam, B. & Filshie, B.K. (1976) Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the spermiophores of Ornithodoros ticks: an attempt to explain their motility. Tissue & Cell, 8, 411–419.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-8166(76)90002-1

Fenner, A.L. & Bull, C.M. (2007) Bothriocroton hydrosauri (Formerly Aponomma hydrosauri) (Denny, 1843) (Acari: Ixodidae), new parasite record for the endangered pygmy bluetongue lizard, Tiliqua adelaidensis (Scincidae) from Australia. Comparative Parasitology, 74, 378–379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1654/4272.1

Ferguson, E.W. (1925) Australian ticks. Australian Zoologist, 4, 24–35.

Fitzgerald, M.P. (2007) Tick toxicity in a cat caused by the larval stage of Ixodes holocyclus. Australian Veterinary Practitioner, 37, 32–34.

Frickmann, H. & Dobler, G. (2013a) Comparison of different media for preservation and transport of viable rickettsiae. European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology, 3, 194–197.

Frickmann, H. & Dobler, G. (2013b) Inactivation of rickettsiae. European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology, 3, 188–193.

Frickmann, H., Schropfer, E. & Dobler, G. (2013) Actin assessment in addition to specific immuno–fluorescence staining to demonstrate rickettsial growth in cell culture. European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology, 3, 198–203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/eujmi.3.2013.3.8

Fuller, C. (1899) Notes on the Queensland cattle tick and its relationship to the red water tick and the blue tick of Cape Colony (South Africa). Queensland Agricultural Journal, 4, 389–394.

Garner, M.G., Longbottom, H.M., Cannon, R.M. & Plant, A.J. (1997) A review of Q fever in Australia 1991–1994. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 21, 722–730.

Gemmell, R.T., Cepon, G., Green, P.E. & Stewart, N.P. (1991) Some effects of tick infestations on juvenile northern brown bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 27, 269–275.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-27.2.269

Godfrey, S.S., Bull, C.M., Murray, K. & Gardner, M.G. (2006) Transmission mode and distribution of parasites among groups of the social lizard Egernia stokesii. Parasitology Research, 99, 223–230.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-005-0120-9

Gomez–Diaz, E., Morris–Pocock, J.A., González–Solís, J. & McCoy, K.D. (2012) Trans–oceanic host dispersal explains high seabird tick diversity on Cape Verde islands. Biology Letters, 8, 616–619.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2012.0179

Goodrich, B.S. & Murray, M.D. (1978) Factors influencing the toxicity of salivary gland extracts of Ixodes holocyclus Neumann. International Journal for Parasitology, 8, 313–320.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(78)90096-6

Gordon, G. (2008) Northern brown bandicoot Isoodon macrourus. In: Van Dyck, S. & Strahan, R. (Eds.), The mammals of Australia (third edition). Reed New Holland, Sydney, pp. 178–180.

Gordon, G., Hall, L.S. & Atherton, R.G. (1990) Status of bandicoots in Queensland, In: Bandicoots and Bilbies. Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, New South Wales, pp. 37–42.

Gothe, R., Buchheim, C. & Schrecke, W. (1981) Argas (Persicargas) persicus and Argas (Argas) africolumbae as natural vectors of Borrelia anserina and Aegyptianella pullorum in Upper Volta. Berliner und Münchener tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 94, 280–285.

Grattan–Smith, P.J., Morris, J.G., Johnston, H.M., Yiannikas, C., Malik, R., Russell, R. & Ouvrier, R. A. (1997) Clinical and neurophysiological features of tick paralysis. Brain, 120 ( Pt 11), 1975–1987.

Graves, S. & Stenos, J. (2003) Rickettsia honei: a spotted fever group Rickettsia on three continents. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 990, 62–66.

Graves, S. & Stenos, J. (2009) Rickettsioses in Australia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1166, 151–155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04530.x

Green, P.E. (1971) An unusual host of Boophilus microplus. Australian Veterinary Journal, 47, 179–180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1971.tb02139.x

Groves, M.G., Dennis, G.L., Amyx, H.L. & Huxsoll, D.L. (1975) Transmission of Ehrlichia canis to dogs by ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus). American Journal of Veterinary Research, 36, 937–940.

Guglielmone, A.A. (1990) Sites of attachment in Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) on natural hosts. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée (Paris). 65, 145–148.

Guglielmone, A.A. & Moorhouse, D.E. (1985) Differences in nymphs of Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum Koch moulting to males of females. Acarologia (Paris), 26, 7–11.

Guglielmone, A.A. & Moorhouse, D.E. (1986) The effect of photoperiod on the development of Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 23, 274–278.

Guglielmone, A.A., Moorhouse, D.E. & Wolf, G. (1985) Attraction to carbon dioxide of unfed stages of Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum Koch, under field conditions. Acarologia (Paris), 26, 123–129.

Guglielmone, G.A., Robbins, R.G., Apanaskevich, D.A., Petney, T.N, Estrada–Peña, A., Horak, I.G., Shao, R. & Barker, S.C. (2010) The Argasidae, Ixodidae and Nuttalliellidae (Acari: Ixodida) of the world: a list of valid species names. Zootaxa, 2528, 1–28.

Guzinski, J., Bull, C.M., Donnellan, S.C. & Gardner, M.G. (2009) Molecular genetic data provide support for a model of transmission dynamics in an Australian reptile tick, Bothriocroton hydrosauri. Molecular Ecology, 18, 227–234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294x.2008.04023.x

Guzinski, J., Saint, K.M., Gardner, M.G., Donnellan, S.C. & Bull, C.M. (2008) Development of microsatellite markers and analysis of their inheritance in the Australian reptile tick, Bothriocroton hydrosauri. Molecular Ecology Resources, 8, 443–445.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01987.x

Hall–Mendelin, S., Craig, S.B., Hall, R.A., O'Donoghue, P., Atwell, R.B., Tulsiani, S.M. & Graham, G.C. (2011) Tick paralysis in Australia caused by Ixodes holocyclus Neumann. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology 105, 95–106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/136485911x12899838413628

Hamilton, D.G. (1940) Tick paralysis: a dangerous disease in children. Medical Journal of Australia, 1, 759–765.

Hardwick, S. (2010) Electronic polytomous and dichotomous keys to the genera and species of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) present in New Zealand. Systematic & Applied Acarology, 15, 163–183.

Heath, A. C.G. (1974) An investigation into temperature and humidity preferences of ixodid ticks, and their distribution in relation to bioclimatic zones in Australia. PhD thesis, Department of Parasitology, University of Queensland Brisbane, Australia.

Heath, A. C.G. (1978) Seasonality in ectoparasites. New Zealand Entomologist, 6, 364–365.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00779962.1978.9722293http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00779962.1978.9722293

Heath, A.C. (1979) The temperature and humidity preferences of Haemaphysalis longicornis, Ixodes holocyclus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodidae): studies on eggs. International Journal for Parasitology, 9, 33–39.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(79)90063-8

Heath, A.C.G. (1981) The temperature and humidity preferences of Haemaphysalis longicornis, Ixodes holocyclus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodidae): studies on engorged larvae. International Journal for Parasitology, 11, 169–175.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(81)90081-3

Heath, A.C.G. (1986) Aspects of the biology, seasonality and host associations of Haemaphysalis bancrofti, H. humerosa, H. bremneri and Ixodes tasmani (Acari: Ixodidae). In: Cremin, M., Dobson, C. & Moorhouse, D. E. (Eds), Parasite lives. University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, London & New York pp, 179–188.

Heath, A.C.G. (1994) Ectoparasites of livestock in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 21, 23–38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014223.1994.9517973

Heath, A.C.G. (2006) Observations on Ixodes eudyptidis Maskell (Acari: Ixodidae), Ornithodoros capensis Neumann (Acari: Argasidae), and other tick parasites of sea birds in New Zealand. Systematic & Applied Acarology, 11, 131–140.

Heath, A.C.G. (2013) Implications for New Zealand of potentially invasive ticks sympatric with Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae). Systematic & Applied Acarology, 18, 1–26.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11158/saa.18.4.11

Heath, A.C.G., Tenquist, J.D. & Bishop, D.M. (1987) Goats, hares, and rabbits as hosts for the New Zealand cattle tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 14, 549–555.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014223.1987.10423028

Heath, A.C.G., Tenquist, J. D. & Bishop, D. M. (1988) Bird hosts of the New Zealand cattle tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 15, 585–586.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014223.1988.10422638

Heath, A.C.G., Pearce, D.M., Tenquist, J.D. & Cole, D.J.W. (1977) Some effects of a tick infestation (Haemaphysalis longicornis) on sheep. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 20, 19–22.

Heath, A.C.G., Palma, R. L., Cane, R. P. & Hardwick, S. (2011) Checklist of New Zealand ticks (Acari: Ixodidae, Argasidae). Zootaxa, 55–63.

Henry, M. (1938) The kangaroo tick. Australian Veterinary Journal, 14, 69–71.

Hlinka, O., Murrell, A. & Barker, S.C. (2002) Evolution of the secondary structure of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) in hard ticks (Ixodidae, Arthropoda). Heredity, 88, 275–279.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.hdy.6800040

Hoogstraal, H. (1971) Book review: "Australian ticks," by F. H. S. Roberts. Pacific Insects, 13, 445–446.

Hoogstraal, H. (1985) Argasid and nuttalliellid ticks as parasites and vectors. Advances in Parasitology, 24, 135–238.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0065-308x(08)60563-1

Hoogstraal, H. & Kaiser, M.N. (1973) The subgenus Persicargas (Ixodoidea: Argasidae: Argas). No. 18. A. (P.) nullarborensis. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 66, 1296–1298.

Hoogstraal, H., Kaiser, M.N. & McClure, H.E. (1974) The subgenus Persicargas (Ixodoidea: Argasidae: Argas) 20. A. (P.) robertsi parastizing nesting wading birds and domestic chickens in the Australian and oriental regions, viral infections, and host migration. Journal of Medical Entomology, 11, 513–524.

Hoogstraal, H., Clifford, C.M. & Keirans, J.E. (1979) The Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) capensis group (Acarina: Ixodoidea: Argasidae) of the Palearctic and Oriental regions. O. (A.) coniceps identity, bird and mammal hosts, virus infections, and distribution in Europe, Africa, and Asia. Journal of Parasitology, 65, 395–407.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3280282

Hoogstraal, H., Roberts, F.H.S., Kohls, G.M. & Tipton, V.J. (1968) Review of Haemaphysalis (Kaiseriana) longicornis Neumann (resurrected) of Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Fiji, Japan, Korea and Northeastern China and USSR, and its parthenogenetic and bisexual populations (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae). Journal of Parasitology, 54, 1197–1213.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3276992

Hoogstraal, H., Guirgis, S.S., Khalil, G.M. & Kaiser, M.N. (1975) The subgenus Persicargas (Ixodoidea: Argasidae: Argas). 27. The life cycle of A. (P.) robertsi population samples from Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, Australia, and Sri Lanka. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, 6, 532–539.

Hoogstraal, H., Clifford, C.M., Keirans, J.E., Kaiser, M.N. & Evans, D.E. (1976) The Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) capensis group (Acarina: Ixodoidea: Argasidae) of the palearctic and oriental regions. O. (A.) maritimus: identity, marine bird hosts, virus infections, and distribution in western Europe and northwestern Africa. Journal of Parasitology, 62, 799–810.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3278964

Hughes, L.E., Clifford, C.M., Thomas, L.A., Denmark, H.A. & Philip, C.B. (1964) Isolation and characterization of a virus from soft ticks (Ornithodoros capensis Group) collected on Bush Key, Dry Tortugas, Florida. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 13, 118–122.

Humphery–Smith, I., Cybinski, D.H., Moorhouse, D.E. & Dale, D. (1987) Arboviruses and zoonotic infections on the Great Barrier Reef and in the Coral Sea. In: St George, T. D., Kay, B. H. & Blok, J. (Eds), Arbovirus research in Australia, Brisbane: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia. pp. 209–217.

Humphery–Smith, I., Cybinski, D.H., Byrnes, K.A. & St George, T.D. (1991a) Seroepidemiology of arboviruses among seabirds and island residents of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Epidemiology & Infection, 107, 435–440.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0950268800049086

Humphery–Smith, I., Thong, Y. H., Moorhouse, D., Creevey, C., Gauci, M. & Stone, B. (1991b) Reactions to argasid tick bites by island residents on the Great Barrier Reef. The Medical Journal of Australia, 155, 181–186.

Inokuma, H., Takahata, H., Fournier, P. E., Brouqui, P., Raoult, D., Okuda, M., Onishi, T., Nishioka, K. & Tsukahara, M. (2003) Tick paralysis by Ixodes holocyclus in a Japanese traveler returning from Australia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 990, 357–358.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2003.tb07390.x

Izzard, L., Graves, S., Cox, E., Fenwick, S., Unsworth, N. & Stenos, J. (2009) Novel rickettsia in ticks, Tasmania, Australia. Emerging Infectious Disease, 15, 1654–1656.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090799

Izzo, M.M., Poe, I., Horadagoda, N., de Vos, A.J. & Housea, J.K. (2010) Haemolytic anaemia in cattle in NSW with Theileria infections. Australian Veterinary Journal, 88, 45–51.

Jackson, J. (1998) A new host record for Ixodes holocyclus Neumann and Ixodes cordifer Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae) in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology, 37, 113–114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-6055.1998.tb01556.x

Jackson, J., Chilton, N.B., Beveridge, I., Morris, M. & Andrews, R.H. (2000) Genetic variation within the ticks Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes cornuatus from south–eastern Australia. International Journal for Parasitology, 30, 1159–1166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0020-7519(00)00103-x

Jackson, J., Beveridge, I., Chilton, N.B., Andrews, R.H. & Dixon, B. (2002) Morphological comparison of the adult and larval stages of the Australian ticks Ixodes holocyclus Neumann, 1899 and I. cornuatus Roberts, 1960 (Acari: Ixodoidea). Systematic & Applied Acarology, 7, 91–108.

Jackson, J., I. Beveridge, Chilton, N.B. & Andrews, R.H. (2007) Distributions of the paralysis ticks Ixodes cornuatus and Ixodes holocyclus in south–eastern Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal, 85, 420–424.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2007.00183.x

James, M.P., Saunders, B.W., Guy, L.A., Brookbanks, E.O., Charleston, W.A.G. & Uilenberg, G. (1984) Theileria orientalis, a blood parasite of cattle. First report in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 32, 154–156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00480169.1984.35103

Johnson, D.W. (1966) Epidemiology of "Q" fever in Queensland. A seven–year survey. The Medical Journal of Australia, 1, 121–125.

Jonsson, N.N. (2006) The productivity effects of cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) infestation on cattle, with particular reference to Bos indicus cattle and their crosses. Veterinary Parasitology, 137, 1–10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.01.010

Jonsson, N.N. & Piper E.K. (2007) Integrated control programs for ticks on cattle. School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 163 pp.

Kamau, J., de Vos, A.J., Playford, M., Salim, B., Kinyanjui, P. & Sugimoto, C. (2011) Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks. Parasites & Vectors, 4, 22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-4-22

Kawabata, H., Ando, S., Kishimoto, T., Kurane, I., Takano, A., Nogami, S., Fujita, H., Tsurumi, M., Nakamura, N., Sato, F., Takahashi, M., Ushijima, Y., Fukunaga, M. & Watanabe, H. (2006) First detection of Rickettsia in soft–bodied ticks associated with seabirds, Japan. Microbiology & Immunology, 50, 403–406.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.2006.tb03807.x

Keirans, J.E. & Pound , J.W. (2003) An annotated bibliography of the spinose ear tick, Otobius megnini (Dugès, 1883) (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae) 1883 – 2000. Systematic & Applied Acarology Special Publication, 13, 1–68.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11158/saasp.13.1.1

Kelers, K., Barker, S.C. & Song, S.D. (2012) Identification of Ixodes holocyclus by DNA sequencing: application for suspected tick envenomation in a dog living outside an enzootic area. Australian Veterinary Practitioner, 42, 240–242.

Kemp, D.H. (1979) Identity of Ixodes holocyclus and other paralysis ticks in Australia. Australian Advances in Veterinary Science, 71, 71.

Khalil, G.M., Hoogstraal, H. & Oliver, J.H., Jr. (1980) Biological evaluation of the systematic validity of the African Argas (Persicargas) arboreus and the Asian–Australian A. (P.) robertsi (Ixodoidea: Argasidae). International Journal for Parasitology, 10, 253–259.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(80)90005-3

King, K.A., Keith, J. O., Mitchell, C.A. & Keirans, J.E. (1977) Ticks as a factor in nest desertion of California brown pelicans. Condor, 79, 507–509.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1367739

Kleindorfer, S., Lambert, S. & Paton, D.C. (2006) Ticks (Ixodes sp.) and blood parasites (Haemoproteus spp.) in New Holland honeyeaters (Phylidonyris novaehollandiae): evidence for site specificity and fitness costs. Emu, 106, 113–118.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/mu05055

Klompen, H., Dobson, S. J. & Barker, S.C. (2002) A new subfamily, Bothriocrotoninae n. subfam., for the genus Bothriocroton Keirans, King & Sharrad, 1994 status amend. (Ixodida: Ixodidae), and the synonymy of Aponomma Neumann, 1899 with Amblyomma Koch, 1844. Systematic Parasitology, 53, 101–107.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1020466007722

Klompen, J.S.H., Black, W.C. IV, Keirans, J.E. & Norris, D.E. (2000) Systematics and biogeography of hard ticks, a total evidence approach. Cladistics, 16, 79–102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2000.tb00349.x

Koch, J.H. (1967) Some aspects of tick paralysis in dogs. NSW Veterinary Practitioner, 3.

Kohls, G.M. (1957) Acarina: Ixodoidea. Insects of Micronesia (Bernice P. Bishop Museum) 3, 118–122.

Kohls, G.M., Sonenshine, D.E. & Clifford, M. (1965) The systematics of the subfamily Ornithodorinae (Acarina: Argasidae). II. Identification of the larvae of the Western Hemisphere and descriptions of three new species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 58, 3.

Kohls, G.M., Hoogstraal, H., Clifford, C.M. & Kaiser, M.N. (1970) The subgenus Persicargas (Ixodoidea, Argasidae, Argas) 9. Redescription and New World records of Argas (P.) persicus (Oken), and resurrection, redescription, and records of A. (P.) radiatus Railliet, A. (P.) sanchezi Dues and A. (P.) miniatus Koch, New World ticks misidentified as A. (P.) persicus. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 63, 590–606.

Kollars, T.M., Jr., Tippayachai, B. & Bodhidatta, D. (2001) Short report: Thai tick typhus, Rickettsia honei, and a unique rickettsia detected in Ixodes granulatus (Ixodidae: Acari) from Thailand. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, 65, 535–537.

Kolonin, G.V. (1978) World distribution of ixodid ticks (genus Haemaphysalis). [In Russian] Nauka, Moscow, Russia, 77– pp.

Kolonin, G.V. (2009) Fauna of Ixodid ticks of the world available at http://www.kolonin.org.

Krijgsman, B.J. & Ponto, S.A. S. (1932) De teken van der Oost Indischen Archipelagen. Veeartsenkikundige Mededeelingen. Batavia, 79, 1–67.

Laan, B., Handasyde, K. & Beveridge, I. (2011a) Occurrence of the tick Haemaphysalis bancrofti Nuttall & Warburton, 1915 in Victoria with additional data on its distribution and with scanning electron micrographs of life cycle stages. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 123, 189–199.

Laan, B., Handasyde, K. & Beveridge, I. (2011b) Observations on the biology and distribution of the tick Ixodes hirsti Hassall, 1931 (Acari: Ixodoidea). Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 123, 200–216.

Labruna, M.B., Naranjo, V., Mangold, A.J., Thompson, C., Estrada–Peña, A., Guglielmone, A.A., Jongejan, F. & de la Fuente, J. (2009) Allopatric speciation in ticks: genetic and reproductive divergence between geographic strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9, 46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-9-46

Lefèvre, P.–Ch., Blancou, J., Chermette, R. & Uilenberg, G. (Eds.) (2010) Infectious and Parasitic Diseases of Livestock. Lavoisier, Ed. TEC & Doc, Paris, France; CABI, Wallingford, U.K.; vols 1 & 2, 1985 pp.

Lempereur, L., Geysen, D. & Madder, M. (2010) Development and validation of a PCR–RFLP test to identify African Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) ticks. Acta Tropica, 114, 55–58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.01.004

Levin, M.L., Studer, E., Killmaster, L., Zemtsova, G. & Mumcuoglu, K.Y. (2012) Crossbreeding between different geographical populations of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae). Experimental & Applied Acarology, 58, 51–68.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-012-9561-x

Li, A.Y., Adams, P. J., Abdad, M. Y. & Fenwick, S.G. (2010) High prevalence of Rickettsia gravesii sp. nov. in Amblyomma triguttatum collected from feral pigs. Veterinary Microbiology, 146, 59–62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.04.018

Liu, G.H., Chen, F., Chen, Y.Z., Song, H.Q., Lin, R.Q., Zhou, D.H. & Zhu, X.Q. (2013) Complete mitochondrial genome sequence data provides genetic evidence that the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) represents a species complex. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 9, 361–369.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.6081

Main, A.R. & Bull, C.M. (2000) The impact of tick parasites on the behaviour of the lizard Tiliqua rugosa. Oecologia (Berlin), 122, 574–581.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004420050981

Marks, E.N. & Cribb, I.B. (1966) Notes on scrub ticks (Ixodes holocyclus) on native fauna in the Samford District. The Queensland Naturalist, 18, 16–18.

Mason, R.W., Kemp, D.H. & King, S.J. (1974) Letter: Ixodes cornuatus and tick paralysis. Australian Veterinary Journal, 50, 580.

Mattila, J.T., Burkhardt, N.Y., Hutcheson, H.J., Munderloh, U.G. & Kurtti, T.J. (2007) Isolation of cell lines and a rickettsial endosymbiont from the soft tick Carios capensis (Acari: Argasidae: Ornithodorinae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 44, 1091–1101.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585(2007)44[1091:ioclaa]2.0.co;2

Mayberry, C.V.O. (2003) Spinose ear tick (Otobius megnini). Factsheet No. 1/2003. February 2003. Western Australian Department of Agriculture. South Perth, Western Australia.

Mayne, P.J. (2011) Emergin


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa